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Ohio Doughboys in Italy 




The Princa of Wales and Colonel Wilham Wallace 



Au^ors 

COLOMEL WILLIAM WALLACE 
PRIVATE WALTER C. HART 
LIEUTENAHT GEORGE W. CONELLT 
CAPTAIN J. McKINNEY 
MAJOR CONSTANT SOUTHWORTrl 
LIEUTENANT A. A. RENDIGS, JR. 
MEUTEN ANT CARL H. TRIK, 3cl 



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THB U»RARY 

Om GOVORESS 

WASXINCTON 



Ohio Doughboys in Italy 



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The regimental insignia made at Milan and subsequently furnish- 
ed the 332nd Regiment, bears the famous Lion of St. Mark. 

St. Mark, who is known as "The Historian of the Resurrection," 
is the patron saint of Venice, and the "Lion of St. Mark" is his sym- 
bol. It is an appropriate symbol, since people in the Middle Ages 
believed the cub of a lioness was always born dead and after three 
days the lioness infused breath into the cub. This awakening typified 
the Resurrection. Since the angels, who are messengers of heaven, 
are represented as having wings, the lion is winged and represents 
one who bears good tidings. St. Mark's body was brought from 
Alexandria, Egypt, about 828 A. D. 

It was altogether fitting that the 332nd Infantry, whose field of 
military operations was almost entirely in the Province of Venezla 
(Venice), should adopt this symbol as its official regimental insignia. 



Oltio DoiKjlihous in Italy 



OKio Dougnbo3)5 in Ital}? 

Reminiscences of (ke 332d Infantry) 
INTRODUCTION 



The 332nd Infantry was mobilized at Cami> Sherman (Sept. 7, 
1917, to Nov. 18, 1917) and trained at Camp Perry, sailing on the 
"Aquitania" from New York (June 8, 1918), arriving at Liverpool, 
June 15, 1918. The outfit proceeded immediately to Southampton; 
the next day, to Le Havre; then through Paiis and Foulain to 
Mandres. Hers the regiment was reviewed by General Pershing and 
President Poincaire on June 23, 1918; and by the Chief of Staff of 
the Belgian Army on June 26, 1918. On July 26. 1918. the organiza- 
tion left for duty in Italy. 



The debacle of Capporetto, which drove the Italian Aimy across ViUorio 
Venetia to the western banks of thp Piave River, was one of the disasters of 
tlie World War to the Allied cause. Although France and England felt it^ 
indirect results, Italy was to bear the full brunt in the loss of territory, men 
and munitions. But uneasiness in the Allied Councils was at once manifest 
over the lowered morale of the Italian Army and civilians Gorman propa- 
ganda, before the drive of ihe Central Powers into Italy, had helped bring 
about the defeat at Capporetto and nearly lost to Hun vandalism the treasured 
city of Venice. The Germans planned theii- propaganda in masterly fashion 
and much better than usual. It was well timed, for at the moment many 
Italians were ready to believe anything was preferable to a continuance of 
mouldy war bread and macaroni "slum." 

Socialism and anti-war feeling (before Italy joined the Allied forces) were 
strongly intrenched from toe to strap of the Italian boot. Continued warfare, 
with its irksome penalties produced in the minds of the discontented, a feeling 
of war-weariness like that which overthrew the Russian giant. German prop- 
aganda guns were turned toward this vulnerable morale salient in the Italian 
nation. Then followed Capporetto, and beguilers and beguiled were in the 
state of self-satisfaction which gave them the seeming right to shout: "I told 
you so." So lowered was Italian morale that every one who understood the 
situation was worried lest still darker times might follow. 

The Italian Minister of War had a happy thought. At a meeting of the 
Supreme War Council, in Paris, February 6, 1918, he asked Pershing to send 
a battalion ot Americans to Italy. A battalion was all he requested — not for 
the strength a battalion might exert in a military way, but for bolstering up 
the weak-kneed in the Italian Army and civilian population. The Italian Min- 
ister strongly urged that such American units be sent directly to an Italian 
port as tangible proof of the co-operation of the American nation. He was cer- 
tain that the effect would be electrical upon all classes in Italy, especially the 
large number of Italian Americans who had returned to their native soil 

Pershing evidently thought well of the proposal, and cabled asking for 
instructions. Four months later, he received from Washington the following 
cablegram : 

"Reference to shipment of one regiment of American Infantry to 

Italy, the Secretary of War directs that you ship one regiment from 

your command for that purpose " 

Italy had asked for one battalion and received three — a regiment. Why 
not a division? This question is answered by the battle m*p of France, in 
June, 1918. Every ounce of manhood and material was then needed to save 
Paris, France, and the Allied Cause. 



©(;!.A630040 



Ohio Doughboys in Italy 3 

Between June 4 and 21, the 83rd Ohio National Army Division arrived in 
France. Then quickly followed the 37th (Buckeye) National Guard Division, 
which began to debark June 23. July saw Ohio well represented on the rain- 
sodden fields of France. Men of Ohio in the Regular Divisions had previously 
fought at Cantigny and on the Marne, and now the flower of Ohio manhood 
had added its greater quota to the Cause. 

The 83rd, as a Division, was soon "out of luck." Pershing ordered ii split 
into fragments, sending the greater part to other divisions as replacements, — 
all except the 332nd Regiment of Infantry under the command of Colonel Wil- 
liam J. Wallace, and the 331st Field Hospital Company. To use official lan- 
guage, that regiment and the Field Hospital Company were ordered "shipped" 
to Italy. 

In civilian life, everything from mules to potatoes is shipped; humanity 
is not usually considered freight or cargo. In the army it is different; men 
in O. D. go under the same mental bill of lading as do bales, boxes and crates. 
One is half persuaded that the reporter who made a blunder by referring to 
the famous "Pullman" cars of France as being labelled "8 Chevaux and 40 
Hommes" was a former S. O. S. man. Men and horses were alike to him. But 
then one must not be too hard on the fine fellows who arranged the round 
trip of the 332nd from America to France and Italy, and home again. 

The 332nd was selected by Pershing as the most available. It was neces- 
sary, as he cabled Washington, to select from the 83rd Division; all other 
Divisions were either m the battle line or completing arrangements to be 
placed in the front. Hence the 83rd was used as a replacement division, less 
the Regiment of Infantry and 331st Field Hospital Company which were desig- 
nated for service in Italy. 

During the time between the Italian requests and the actual detail of the 
o32nd, the Chief of the American Military Mission to Italy, Major General 
Eben Swift, had been busily engaged in a survey for a suitable American 
Military Base in Italy. During the latter part of June, 1918, investigations of 
conditions at Parma, Borgo, S. Domino and Fiorenzuela had been conducted. 
Of these Parma presented the best possibilities, but was discounted on account 
of the already overcrowded condition among the Italian soldiers temporarily 
billeted there. 

On July 23, the Italian War Ministry had tentatively decided upon Savona 
as a disembarking port and Cantalupo as a supply base, but in forwarding that 
decision General Swift stated that if only a regiment of American? arrived a 
separate supply base weuld be unnecessary. 

Preparations had also been made in advance for ambulance service, as 
may be seen by the following instructions issued to the Chief of the United 
States Army Ambulance Service with Italian Army. 

.'The 332nd Infantry, accompanied by the 331st Field Hospital Company 
of the American Expeditionary forces, will soon be sent to Italy for duty. 

"No ambulances are being sent with these troops. It is desired that you 
take steps to ascertain from the proper Italian authorities the date of arrival 
and destination of the above-mentioned organizations and prepare to supply 
them during their stay in Italy with such ambulance service as they may 
require. At least one of your sections should be permanently attached to the 
Field Hospital." 

July 25th found the Regiment en route to Italy by rail. Upon arrival in 
Italy, the troops v/ere hurrahed and cheered and then billeted in various 
places, in accordance with the joint plans arranged by the American and 
Italian military authorities. 

Some were sent to Villafranca, others to Custoza and the balance were 
billeted in Summacompaqua. The quarters in those places may have been 
satisfactory to the Italians, but the men of Ohio had no relish for the incom- 
modious and generally unsatisfactory living conditions. Consequently Colonel 
Wallace requested a ti-ansfer to better quarters, and the regiment soon found 
itself in Vallegio. Here they were provided with an entirely new camp equip- 
ment and rationed with a full allowance of food. This was a notable achieve- 



Jf Ohio Doiighboys in Italy 

ment on the part of the Italians, since their own troops were on a scanty meat 
ration. But the Americans were to be made welcome and as happy as possible 
under the circumstances. 

At Vallesio, Ihe 3o2nd underwent an intensive training program under 
Major Allegretti. This officer, who was most popular with the Americans, 
comnranded the shock troops, the Arditti, of the Italians. The character of 
training soon revealed the main purpose of the American troops in Italy, 
namely, to build up the morale of the Italians, and as a corollary, destroy that 
of the Austrians. 

During the training period the officers of the 332nd made frequent obser- 
vation visits to the front lines, where they created a sensation for friend and 
foe alike. Officers only remained for a short time on these visits, when they 
were withdrawn and others sent up on like missions. The idea was to create 
The impression that :he;e was a vast body of American troops in Italy. This 
checkerboard movement was later extended to the companies of the Regiment. 

In the early part of October, the 2nd Battalion of the 332nd, under the 
command of Major William G. Everson, moved into camp just north of the 
Treviso. During the month the remainder of the regiment left Vallegio and 
marched to Treviso, where they intrenched. At this point the Italians held 
one side of the Piave River, where it ilowed between the Carnic Alps, while 
the opposite side was held by the Austrians. Definitely located at Treviso, 
the Regiment began its gruelling grind of the hardening process. 

Inasmuch as the Americans had been billeted and living more or less 
easily, and in view of the fact that they were about to enter into a drive that 
would require extreme hardihood to stand the rigors of long forced marches 
under full equipment, it was deemed expedient by the Italians to harden the 
men to what they might expect in action. 

Consequently daily hikes were started under full equipment. They ranged 
from 10 kilometres to, finally, 25 kilometres. Each battalion was given a dif- 
ferent route and received orders to so time its march as to meet the other 
two battalions at a given time at a given spot. 

The orders were that every man should go on these hikes, but a guard to 
be left at quarters. In one instance a certain captain was ordered to take 
men over the groimd covered the day before because the men were in 
excess of the number permitted to remain behind, and missed the hike. 

The value of these hikes was amply proved later in the Big Push when the 
men marched as high as 42 kilometres in one day under full pack. 



ITALIAN BATTLE PLANS. 

The Italians were massing for the attack which was to be conducted 
according to the following plan: 

"In the section from the Swiss border down to the Adige River, no 
definite movement was to be undertaken. In the sector between the Adige 
and the Brenta sufficient activity was to be undertaken to occupy the ter- 
ritory held by the enemy's troops in this sector and prevent their being- 
shifted to more seriously threatened points. Between the Brenta and the 
Piave the advance was to be sufficiently far to occupy the commanding 
heights in this sector and to cue off communications from Feltre to the 
Ar^iago Plateau. The main movement was to center about the Eighth 
Italian Army in the region of Montello. 

"Across the Piave and to the north of Montello there is a prominent 
ridge cf hills rising from the Piave near Sernaglia to an altitude of twelve 
to fourteen hundred feet and running northeast toward Vittoria. Much 
of the Austrian artillery was located on the south face of this ridge and 
on some lower hills just west of the Conegliano. The ridge is reached by 
only two good roads, one in the vicinity of Soligo and the other from Con- 
geliano to Tanzo, which, the plan contemplated, were to be destroyed and 
made impassable by artillery fire from the vicinity of^Iontebello. The 
only other means of retreat for the Austrian y^rmy troops located South of 
this lidge was round to the south point of the hill or thj-oueh Vittorio. 



Ohio Bouglitoys in Italy 5 

The Twelfth Army was to advance on Vittorio and close Ihe egress in this 
direction, whtn it was hoped that a large part of the artillery and the 
troops in this sector would be cut off and captured. The Tenth Army was 
to hold the line, Conegiano southeast to the river and when securely in 
position, the Third Army was to cross and move the northeast toward 
Pardenone. 

"Crossing was to be made over a series of sixteen foot-bridges and 
eight wagon-bridges between Vidor and Nervessa, with additional bridges 
in the vicinity of Papadopoli Island for the Tenth Army, and some to the 
north of Vidor for the crossing of the Twelfth Army. All the bridges 
between Vidor and Nervessa were broken the first day by the current or 
the Austrian artillery fire and they were unable to replace them. Many 
of the bridges to the north and south of this sector were also destroyed 
during the day and replaced during the night, which accounts for the 
modification in the plan of advance from that contemplated in the original 
plan. 

"A division or more of cavalry was to be crossed over the fords in 
the vicinity of Popodopoli Island for use in the plain country to the north 
of Pardeonone." 

Such were the plans of the Italian command. In the main they were fol- 
lowed out, but in subsequent paragraphs will be seen where the Big Push was 
carried off and the variations that were made necessary by the exigencies of 
battle, especially as they related to the Americans. 




6 Ohio Doughboys in Italy 

ni\e First ni\ree MontKs in Ital}) 

By Private Walter C. Hart. 

On entering Italy with Company "D", our impressions were 
the same as everybody in the 332nd got since all entered over the 
same route. Then, too, the receptions tendered us were really 
meant for the American Army and hence bear great general inter- 
est. 

Our Company reached and passed the Reyssouse River at 
Bourg the morning of July 27th. The early hours were chill and 
damp. From Bourg the route led to Amberieu, where after a half- 
hour stop, the train backed up to enter the Alpine Pass — the same 
as was used by ancient conquerors. 

The extremity of the Alpine Pass looks down upon the plains 
of northern Italy — and the memory of that afternoon shall forever 
remain a cherished recollection in the war annals of every man 
lucky enough to be there. Above, the Alps ! 

The palaces of nature, whoso vast walls, 
Have pinnacled in clouds their snowy scalps, 
And thron'd eternity in icy halls 
Of cold sublimity, where forms and falls 
The avalanche — the thunderbolt of snow! 
All that expands the spirit, yet appalls, 
Gather around these summits, as to show 
How earth may pierce to Heaven, yet leave vain man below. 

—Byron: ''Childe Harold." 

Aix-les-Bains, that most renowned watering place of Europe, 
nestling amid Alpine crags on the edge of the beautiful Lake Bour- 
get, was reached at 5 :00 p. m. A gorgeous sunlight flooded the 
mountains and pierced the crystal depths of the lake. Another 
hour of tingling wonderment and the troop train came to a stand- 
still in cosmopolitan Chambery. Clouds rolled over the mountain 
sides and soon rain was falling fast. 

Within the station area a queer crowd was passing to and fro. 
Peasant mountaineers, bearing (apparently) all their earthly pos- 
sessions, jammed the passageways and excitedly jostled their neigh- 
bors for the right of fullest personal liberties. Soldiers from all 
Allied countries stirred through the crowd, some returning from 
leave, others newly arrived. Chambery is near the heart of 
France's most attractive scenery. Here was the American Red 
Cross as though to give the men one last farewell on French soil. 
Only a short delay, one last glance at the great cross surmounting 
the highest mountain overlooking the city, and the troops waved 
its adieu to Chambery. A drizzling rain fell. 

The next stop half an hour later was made at Montmelian, 
nestling in the shadow of Mt. Savoie, Mt. Glazier, and Mt. Mont- 
melian. By this time the rain had ceased Heavily leaved trees 



Ohio Doiigliboijs in Italy 7 

dripped with water so recently fallen ; the atmosphere was charged 
with the odor of fir and summer flowers. 

Here half an hour's delay to wash and clean up permitted some 
of the men to climb a little hill to a spot where a more command- 
ing view of the mighty snow-covered crags could be had. The 
scene was an inspiring one. A great trinity of walls rose to the 
very heavens. "Look," said an English Red Cross nurse, "and if 
the sun comes out you'll see Mont Blanc." Then as though to grat- 
ify the sensibilities of every man, a ray of golden sunset pierced 
the dark gray mass of clouds wrapping the crest; the clouds dis- 
persed and slowly fell away from the mountain crest, unfolding a 
crystal shaft sparkling in the golden shaft of light, and the men 
recalled the words of Byron in Manfred. 

Mont Blanc is the monarch of mountains. 

They crowned him long ago 
On a throne of rocks, in a robe of clouds. 

With a diadem of snow. 

The engine shrieked. These pioneering American soldiers 
scrambled to find their places on the train. Darkness fell fast 
down in the valley. The train moved in to the night and into the 
region of never ending snow. A region of eternal ice is cold ; it is 
needless to say this night, the last on the soil of France, was not a 
comfortable one. 

Thirteen lost its unsavory reputation when, on August 13, 
1918, the entire 332nd Regiment arose early and marched to a 
point 1 km. east of Valeggio on the Mincio River. On August 14, 
camp was completely and carefully pitched. The change from the 
stuffy and ofttimes crowded conditions prevalent in the villages 
to an open air camp was welcome; and from now on till their de- 
parture from Valeggio this camp and its surroundings brought 
much pleasure to the men of the 332nd. The spot was picturesque. 

Just a little distance to the north the Custoza hills arose, and 
on their crest could be seen the monument which commemorates 
the battles of 185^ and 1866 between Austria and Italy, while 
beyond Custoza the Alps stood in bold relief, occasionally dotted, 
even in the hottest weather, by snow-covered peaks. 

Valeggio itself, one kilometer west, lay around the base of the 
north side of a hill, rising sheerly 400 ft. from the plain, on the 
camp side, and dropping abruptly 500 ft. to the Mincio River on 
the west. An historic looking and age-beaten and medieval castle 
stood on the summit of the hill, dominating the region for twenty 
miles in every direction. West of the hill the crystal clear Mincio, 
taking its water from Lago de Garda, flowed swiftly on its way 
to the Po. An old Roman bridge spanned the Mincio, a fitting 
companion for the ruined castle high above. Many successive 
days the Amex troops marched through Valeggio. and up the hill, 
then down the other side past the bridge, across the Mincio to a 
level valley covered with mulberry and grape vine where realistic 
combat work was executed. To the east and south of the Valeg- 



8 Ohio Doughhoi/s in Italy 

gio camp site extended an almost unbroken level ; 12 kms. to the 
east was Villafranca ; 40 kms. to the south was Mantova (Mantua) ; 
Lago di Garda was 10 kms. northeast. 

A heavy drill schedule began at once. Shade could be found 
nowhere; the sun's burning rays could not be avoided. The nights 
spent in the open tents under a boundless sky, glistening with 
bright stars, amply compensated for the scorching noonday heat. 

The Y. M. C. A. and the Red Cross, the latter under Miss 
Mcintosh and Mr. (Daddy) Butler, did effective and excellent 
work for the members of the 332nd. Both organizations did all 
that was humanly possible to fulfill the hopes of the American pub- 
lic. Their presence brought joy to the men. Their advent here 
was surely marked with real service. 

The troops continued intensive training through the later 
summer; each man, already overtrained, began hoping that the 
impending day would soon arrive when the big drive in Italy would 

begin. 

At the close of the day's heavy, and by this time, monotonous 
drill, the men spent their evenings on the streets and in the small 
shops of Valeggio, or bathed in the clear, swift waters of the Min- 
cio. The camp life, too, was diversified by Sunday trips to Lago di 
Garda and Verona. 

All methods of warfare known to the modern world were pre- 
sented to the men in a practical way on the bombing range ; artil- 
lery, flares, gas, shrapnel bombs, gas bombs, smoke bombs, auto- 
matic rifles, trench mortars, machine guns, rifle grenades, and 
liquid fire — all were used in the manoeuvers. By the close of sum- 
mer these troops were doubtless equal to the most highly trained 
regiments in the U. S. Army. 

In preparation for an international Field Meet under the 
Military at Rome, meets were arranged to choose the American 
representatives from the 332nd Infantry and a battalion elimina- 
tion contest was held on September 3. 

Tuesday, Sept. 2, saw the departure from camp of the first 
American combatant troops on the Italian front; the second bat- 
talion went to the Piave lines where they entered the trenches at 
Varago. The ground where their tents had stood was leveled, 
along with the streets and clever gravel designs before the tents. 
From this it was plainly evident that the second battalion would 
not return to the Valeggio camp, and with this indication there 
was revived the hope for early action and a change from the de- 
pressing influence of constant training. The men were stale and 
overtrained by severe, intensive drills for long hours every day in 
the hot sun. 

Combat work continued at the range and being of a peculiarly 
practical nature and free from wearisome "Squads^ Right" and 
"Squads Left". This training in actual assault broke the dull mo- 
notony of the usual schedule. By this time, in drill and combat, 



Ohio Doughboys in ItaUi 




Band ot .;.;_'ii(l lutantry, Wiiuf. bunJay, August .; l:M^. 




The Governor's Palace. Fiume, occupied by Allied troops in Xov. 1918 
later D'Annunzio's Headquarter?. 



10 Ohio DaiKjhhoi/s in I tall/ 

there was scarcely an infantry movement, or mrde o^ warfare, 
scarcely a device known to military tactics that had not been tried 
by the 332nd men. 

At Ciistoza Hill, on the very ground fought over in 1858 and 
again in 1866 by Austrians and Italians, now marked by two mon- 
uments, the regiment entered the trenches and did its first actual 
trench work overseas. The Custoza region was pitted by trenches 
and dugouts, and covered with barbed wire entanglements in prep- 
aration for any military exigency that might arise from attack by 
enemy forces from the Trento area. While here the Amex men 
helped themselves to the grapes in the vicinity of the trenches and 
as a result, the levy made in equity of this gluttonous act eventu- 
ally cost each man three lire. 

September 12, the regiment suffered a severe blow by the 
explosion of a Stokes Mortar gun on the Borghetto combat field, 
when seven officers and men were killed, and almost two score 
others wounded and mangled. This accident alone took a greater 
toll of American lives than the actual fighting in the Battle of 
Vittorio-Veneto. 

The Arditi, commanded by Major Allegretti, under whose di- 
rection most of the manoeuvers on the combat range were carried 
out, entertained the 332nd Infantry at a Field Meet in which they 
demonstrated to their American "Fratelli" their aptitude for, and 
skill in, athletics. 

Marching upon the field at double time they opened their meet 
by quickly forming a triangular pyramid at the top of which was 
unfurled the "Stars and Stripes" as their military band struck up 
the "Star Spangled Banner". This stirring initial event preceded 
a fast and clever Soccer Game, followed by a Tug-of-War, Races, 
Jumps, Pole Vault, Hand Springs, and Bomb Throwing Contests. 

The command came on Wednesday, October 2, to destroy the 
gravel designs around the tents, to level the ground, and to fill in 
the streets of the camp. That night pup tents covered the former 
camp site now transformed by picks and shovels to a rough area 
of torn and irregular earth. The men of the 332nd had at last 
received the long-awaited order to go to the front. 

The hike from Valeggio to Villafranca on the afternoon of 
October 3, was made in ideal weather conditions. At the station 
there was but a very short delay in entraining, after which the 
route led eastward toward Verona and the Piave River. Specula- 
tion as to the destination was rife. Vicenza was reached and 
passed; the course proceeded eastward in the darkness broken by 
flashes of intermittent light on the northern horizon. A dull re- 
verberating roar spread over the plains around; the flashes and 
the sound spoke plainly of the gigantic struggle for mastery of the 
Alpine peaks. At 2 :30 a. m., October 4, the order, "All out" came. 
The air was chill ; the darkness, intense ; the silence, oppressive, 
except for the sound of heavy artillery wreaking its cleadly wrath 
on the giant walls of Grappa. 

The buildings took strange and fantastic shapes in the morn- 



Ohio Doughboi/s in Italij 11 

ing dark, while the silent uninhabited streets spoke more of death 
than life. The first battalion marched to large cavalry barracks, 
a bale of straw was distributed to each squad and in a little time 
each man lay on the floor in the spot where a few minutes before 
he had stood in the ranks. 

Their senses steeped in sleep ; the men did not awake till they 
were ordered to police the unsanitary camp area at 8 :00 a. m, 
"Where are we?" was on the lips of everyone. "Treviso" came 
back the answer. No one asked "Where is Treviso?" A glance 
about made such a query needless. 

An Italian guard stood at the gate in the high wall around 
the barracks. A large drill field lay outside, west of the gate. 
Across the drill field, 300 yards away, the main highway was filled 
with troops and supply trains ; artillery caissons rolled swiftly 
forward, drawn by clattering, banging tractors ; automobiles bear- 
ing Allied officers of various ranks, but all with serious mien, dash- 
ed by. Bersaglieri pedaled their way cleverly through the con- 
gested areas ; small mules borne down with machine guns, ammu- 
nition, and supplies, were being fed in the shadow of the trees that 
lined both sides of the road. Aeroplanes darted low across the 
terrain, or, circling magnificently, rose steadily upward, seeking 
the best camouflage the sky and clouds oflfered. Others came from 
the shadow of one cloud to disappear in the heavy vapor of anoth- 
er. Austrian airmen manoeuvred warily to outwit their clever 
Italian enemies. A battery of anti-aircraft guns, concealed almost 
in the shadow of the barracks, opened fire. There now could be 
no question about the location of Treviso — this was the Italian 
front. 

The Alps rose in full view to the north. The front lines could 
easily be discerned by the position of mammoth observation bal- 
loons placed at great heights and visible for miles in the direction 
of both mountains and sea. 

Treviso, a flourishing and renowned center in the middle ages, 
is situated at the conjunction of the Sile River with the Botteniga. 
Pliny speaks of it vfry c rly. however, when, referrinp* to the 
Sile, he says it flows "ex montibus Travisanis" ; that is, from the 
mountains to the present Municipium at Treviso. 

The city is eighteen miles north by west of Venice and is con- 
nected with the lagoons at Venice by a canal. The town has a 
mediaeval appearance v\'ith its high walls flanked by bastions, the 
moat surrounding the walls, and the narrow, colonnaded streets. 
The imposing 12th Century Cathedral, restored in the 15th centu- 
ry, has five cupolas. The Gothic Church of San Nicols has a curi- 
ous wooden roof and is adorned in peace time with admirable fres- 
coes. The Borgo Cavour previous to the war had a library of 
50,000 volumes and a picture gallery. 

At the time i^-merican troops entered the city, it was a scene 



12 



Ohio iJoughhoiis in Italy 




HO?iIEWARD— 1. "Goodbye. Miramare". 

4. '"Farewell, Genoa' 



2. Crowds on pier. 

5. From the mast. 



Castle of Albert. 



Ohio Doughboys i)i Ituhj 13 

of desolation. The streets were a litter of brick, mortar, and tim- 
ber ; a civilian inhabitant was not to be seen, — it was as though the 
inhabitants had fled in a night. There were no frescoes in the 
churches, no books in the libraries, no paintings in the gallery. 
Everything had been destroyed or carried away. The narrow, 
silent, and dirty streets heard only the echo of one's footfalls. 

The region of Treviso is sacred ground where the Italian sol- 
diers held out so tenaciously against the Germans and Austrians. 
Here many thousand young heroes voluntarily sacrificed their lives 
for the redemption and greatness of their country. 

Each day it was expected would bring orders to go to the lines. 
Each day brought its thrill of attempted air raids, of an observa- 
tion balloon being shot down, wrapped in tongues of flame and 
clouds of gas smoke. 

Monday, October 7, brought a new experience. That day or- 
ders came to make packs. This order being executed, the men of 
the 332nd practiced crossing the swift current of the Sile river in 
small boats handled by the men themselves. This training, accord- 
ing to report, was in preparation of an assault over the Piave into 
the face of the enemy on the east bank. In a short time, after 
several days' practice, the crossing was made safely and quickly. 
The evening of the same day, a Stand of Colors, the gift of the 
Italian Colony in New York, was formally presented to the 332nd 
men assembled in formation on the drill field to receive them. 

October 12, Columbus Day, was made notable by a visit of 
Samuel Gompers, President of the American Federation of Labor. 
He stirred the hearts of the men by an eloquent plea for the eman- 
cipation of millions in the bondage of political slavery, for the 
enthronement of political righteousness, and he paid fine tribute 
to the men who fell so gallantly on the bloody Western Front. 
Mr. Gompers concluded his concise and inspiring address by a 
magnificent appeal to the men of the 332nd to act courageously in 
the task they were about to undertake. His assurance that the 
folks back home were sharing the trials and pains of the age along 
with their soldiers aroused in the men a more intense enthusiasm 
to "do something" : In the period from June 8 to October 7, the 
men had not seen or heard the voice of an American citizen. Mr. 
Gompers, speaking for the American People, bearing his message 
direct from home, gratified an intense longing. 




11^ Ohio Douiihhoijs in Italy 



OThe Crucial Hour 



October 25th the order to pack U]) was given. The 332d Regiment, 
equipped for action, assem])led upon the drill field ; then in squad forma- 
tion it passed in review before an Italian general. To the dismay of 
every man, the column swung south toward the barracks, and long before 
the second and third battalions were through passing in review, the first 
had entered the courtyard at the "casserna." 

At the command, " Unsling packs and await orders." the men threw 
off their packs in disgust — and waited. 

That day i)assed, night came. Straw piled up in the corners of the 
buildings and none too sanitary by this time, soon loosely covered the 
floor where the men threw themselves in no certain way. They lay in all 
their clothes, packs at their side, Avaiting the order to move. 




;j:;jiRi lui. TreiK li .iluug road. 

In the morning the straw was again piled up, packs and equipment 
slung, and everybody waited. That night the straw was scattered over 
the floor and another night passed — waiting. 

Another day and another night — waiting. 

Then another day — but not another night ! Out into the drill field, 
onto the road, in the direction of the front, the long squad column of 
the 332d Infantry moved silently into the moonless night. 

The crucial hour had come ! The time for launching the ever-pend- 
ing attack had arrived. The British. French, and Italians were about 
to strike from the Alps to the sea, and now the unlu'eakable spirit of 
America, the indomitable courage and mighty conviction of one hundred 
million people, would lie represented tlici-e liy one regiment of infantry 
the 332d, the same kind of Americans as those, who, on the liloody West- 
ern Front, were determining the destiny of emjiires. 



Oliio DoiKjIiboijs in Itali/ 



15 



As they marched in the direction of the Grave de Popodapoli, a 
large ishmd in the Piave, every man of the 332d felt a thrill at the sight 
before him. An artillery barrage was being laid over the Piave such as 
never before had been experienced on the Italian Front. Brilliant flashes 
of light silhouetting the mountains, illuminated the sunnnit of Mt. 
Grappa, 5500 feet above and twenty-five miles distant. Toward the 
mouth of the Piave, thirty miles away, mighty flashes of radiant incan- 
descent fire from the Allied naval guns in the Adriatic made a spectacle 
so appalling that one stood transfixed with awe. The regular and mighty 
roar of cannon was on every hand. A wall of flame rose on three sides. 
The 332d advanced toward the river into this inferno of fire and shell. 
The column halted. A terrific cannonade was going on ahead for posses- 
sion of the pontoon bridge just erected over the river to the Island Grave 
de Popodai^oli. The enemy planes threatened the bridge, now the center 




Road along which 



ind Inf. marched. 



of a maelstrom of steel. Allied anti-aircraft guns responded viciously. 
An observation balloon flashing signals to the artillery, nervously rose 
and fell as daring enemy ])lanes threatened her safety. 

Daylight came and the men of the 332d found they stood at a "Y" 
road, eight miles northeast of Treviso, in the small village of Varago, 
now a mass of debris. Every road was carefully camouflaged with every 
here and there barbed wire entanglements ready to fall on the road at 
the snap of a wire, while the low areas around were a complete network 
of barbed wire defense. The roads were choked with men and material 
waiting to cross the pontoon bridge. 

At the spot where Co. "D" waited in this battle choked area, an 
unusual and interesting shrine, consisting of a crucifix Ijearing the 
implements of Christ's torture and death, challenged the forces of 
combat, and lent to the scene a strangely spiritual touch. Was there 
good or evil prophecy of coming events in this for the men of Co. *'D"? 

Three times the bridge was destroyed, once by a German aviator and 
twice by enemy artillery. When daylight came, a hundred planes darted 



16 



Ohio Doughboys in Italy 



across the battle areas, or. high above, waited the signal to cross the river. 

The 332d awaited orders right in the road. At 5.00 P. M. they 
came and were "]\Iove into the field and camp." For two days and a 
half the regiment lay there. The British had attacked across the Grave 
de Popodapoli with success; this was followed by the Italians on the 
right and more British on the left. < )n the morning of October 31 orders 
came, and the 332d soon was moving over the l^attle-rocked swamps and 
dikes on both sides of the Piave. 

It took just ten hours to make four kms. over this congested road 
crowded with wounded prisoners and exhausted forces. The wagons 
sank deep into the sands of the river ])ed and thus retarded the animals. 
Many dead lay in and around the trenches and shell holes of the islands, 
grim confirmation of the struggle that had taken place. 

The column reached the east l)ank of the river at dusk. The route 
was along shelled roads and into the little village of Cimadolmo, its 
buildings gutted with shells or razed to an unseendy heap of stone and 




Picture taken from German aviator after his capture showing funeral of some noted German. 



mortar. Every little home was deserted ; not an inhabitant remained ; 
it was a phantom village. 1^'requent oaths of condemnation expressed 
the righteous resentment of the men. The tiring night march continued 
over shell-torn roads to Vazzolo, where camp Avas pitched in a field, out- 
posts were established, and the first night over the Piave w^as spent on 
terrain just evacuated by a fleeing enemy. Preparation began early the 
next morning for a continued march. The movement began at 11.00 
A. M., Noveml)er 1. In the early afternoon a small high- diked stream 
was crossed. Here heavy rear guard action had taken place between 
the enemy and the British. Many dead, clad in the Austrian field-gray, 
lay in the fields and in the ditches at the roadside. A fresh mound con- 
tained two hundred Austrian dead. Austrian machine gunners lay at 
every turn in the road and in every ditch ; dead horses lay in field and 
ditch, the mounts of both pursuing cavalry and of fugitives, slain by 
bcmbs from airplanes of the Allies. 

Driven by starvation the routed Austrians sabered pieces from the 
rumps of most of the dead animals. 

Night came. Ii'oii rations l)egan to be used. Tired under the heavy 
l)acks and with the food sui)])ly vciy low. the regiment Invouacked on a 



Ohio Doughboys in Italy n 

low, wet spot. The night was cold ; little rest was expected. Machine 
guns rattled on both flanks and in front. Any moment might bring a 
surprise attack or the necessity for quick offensive action against the 
enemy whose trail the regiment had followed closely since crossing the 
Piave. 

The rest was short; at one o'clock in the morning, November 2, the 
march resumed. A scant cup of 0. D. coffee was given each man, noth- 
ing more. Up till now the regiment had been a reserve unit; from now 
on it became the advance guard of the Famous Tenth Army, made up of 
British, Italians and Americans. 

A quick advance began at 2.00 A. M. At 4.30 A. M. the advance 
troops reached Varda on the banks of the Livenza, at this point a rapid 




Another photo taken from a captive German showing German General reviewing his troops. 

river. The Italian Pontieri had just completed the building of a pontoon 
foot bridge \\'hich could accommodate only one file. The Austrians had 
occupied the opposite bank only a few hours before. Crossing the foot 
bridge at its best was a slow and hazardous operation. Once across the 
stream the march after the fleeing enemy resumed without delay, but at 
seven o'clock the line halted to await orders at ]\Iaron (a small group of 
two or three houses) . 

The advance guard doubled. The enemy was in the immediate 
vicinity. Aeroplanes circled above them like an eagle darting for its 
prey; they swerved down on the fleeing enemy; the missiles could now 
be easily seen from the troops' position. A sudden flash lighted up the 
sky, which was followed by a deafening crash. Then another, and finally 
a third explosion followed. The last concussion caused the earth to rock 
and quiver. The enemy was l^lowing Ms dumps, and destroying the 
bridges at his rear, the intensity of the explosions proving his nearness. 

At this point the high command assigned a five kilometer front to 
the Americans in advance of the Tenth Army. From now on careful 
watching had to be done of every place affording possible concealment. 
The second platoons of each company were assembled and formed a 
combat line, directed by Lieutenant Trik, Regimental Intelligence Officer. 

Territory was assigned. The platoon leaders' watches were set, and 
the enemy designated by a wave of the hand. No maps were furnished — 



18 



Ohio Boughhoys in Italy 



direction ])y (m)1!ii);iss was the only ji;uide. The men were commanded, on 
coming in contact witli the enemy, to keej) going forward, exterminating 
machine gunners, snipers, and stragglers, and on no condition to be held 
up by the foe. Full equipment, lioth marching and fighting, made up 
the load of these men. At 9.30 A. ]\I.. the zero hour, the second platoons 
jumijed oil', each in its assigned position, advancing across country at a 
prescril)ed cadence of 120 steps per minute. These troops combed the 
fields while the main liodv took the higlnvav. 




^Machine Gunners in Exjiosed Posts. 332nd Men Wlioni Mud Could Not Discourage. 



The Italian terrain was cut by many large and small i-ivers, ditches 
and canals, thus forcing the men to wade waist deep in water; again, 
with difficulty, they struggled through vineyards; consequently, the 
advance was extremely arduous. With a rai)idity that was almost 
unbelievable, this si<:irmish line swept on over all the natural barriers 
that s])read over the plains ; the liason, however, could not he maintained. 

At Prata the In'idge over the San Rocco River had been blown up. 
Crossing was made on the ruins. Machine gun carts were dismounted 
and carried over ; the mules swam. The patrols, forced to detour here, 
double timed to get their 2 kms. lead. The men under heavy equipment, 
weakened and fatigued by the tremendous physical exertion without 
food, discarded much of their necessary equipment. It was a question 
of sacrificing their equipment or of falling from exhaustion. 

Search and inquiry at isolated houses revealed that the enemy had 
just fled ; that he had taken live stock, linen and furniture, and had de- 
stroyed what he could not take. 

At Corva, a small town en route, the Italian inhal)itants said the 
Austrians, who had learned of the coming Americans, were fleeing in 
haste. They — the Austrians — believed the number of Alnericans to be 
very great, consecpiently the Austrian retreat was disordered and hasty. 




LIEUT. G. W. COXELLY 



20 Ohio DoiKjhhoijs in Italy 

FIUME 

By Lieut. G. W. CONELLY 

Things happened on the morning of November 13, 1918, while 
the regiment was encamped on the Plains of Ipplis. It was immed- 
iately after we had received the comforting news of the armistice 
with Germany and the regiment had settled down to sort of "devil 
may care" attitude toward life in general — the big job was over; 
joy reigned supreme and whatever tasks to which we may next be 
assigned would surely be of a lighter nature than our previous work 
in helping Italy free her lands from the Austrian invader. 

At one A. M. orders arrived directing our battalion (the 2nd), 
under command of Major F. M. Scanland, to proceed at once to 
Mestre, a town two miles from Venice. From that stopping off 
place we were to continue our journey to Venice and from there to 
Cattaro, the Adriatic port on the boundary line between Dalmatia 
and Montenegro. We were ordered to leave at 6.00 A. M. via 
motortrucks furnished by the Italian Military authorities. Those 
five intervening midnight hours, between the receipt of orders and 
the hour of departure, were ones of intense activity as may be 
readily imagined. Ammunition and supplies were gathered from 
the two remaining battalions as we were going in full war panoply 
prepared for any eventuality. Everyone was in high spirits, for, 
indeed, the war was over and even though we were not homeward 
bound, were we not off on a personally conducted tour of Venice and 
the far-famed Adriatic Sea? — sight-seeing at the expense of Uncle 
Sam with native guides to point out the sights. 

At 6.00 A. M. we were off. Amid the loud huzzahs and best 
wishes of our remaining comrades we started back over the same 
territory covered during the Vittorio-Veneto Offensive. The trip 
was too long for comfort, but at the end of 20 hours we arrived 
in the outskirts of Mestre. The night was cold and those quickly- 
built fires were given a hearty welcome as every one "hugged in" 
as close as they could. Here we remained until after daybreak. 
Apparently the Italians had not expected us so soon as billets were 
not prepared, but by noon we moved into quarters, although crowd- 
ed, answered the purpose — the main thing was to get inside. 

The one thing uppermost in the minds of almost everyone was 
the question, "When do we sail?" The ship on which we were to 
leave had not arrived, and so the 14th and 15th passed around 
without anything eventful until the early evening of the 15th. The 
schedule had been changed with a bang. Lieutenant Caucus, Ital- 
ian officer attached to our battalion entered the room with the in- 
formation that one platoon was to be sent to Fiume. At 7.45 P. M. 
I was ordered to report to Major Scanland, and received the follow- 
ing order: "You will have your platoon ready to leay.e here at 8.15 
P. M. with full equipment, including three days' rations. You will 
take a train to Venice and then board an Italian destroyer which 
will take you to Fiume. There you will land and occupy the city". 



Ohio Doughhoys in Italy 



21 



To add to the excitement caused by the sudden change of des- 
tination, upon inquiry as to what conditions I might find there, I 
was informed that we might have to force a landing or we might 
be permitted to land peacefully. No one knew. But we were pre- 
pared for either eventuality. The adventure of a platoon of Yan- 
kees in a polyglot city that had been and still was a bone of conten- 
tion between Slav and Magyar and Italian, lent zest to the new 
turn of events. 

Owing to wounds and illness, my platoon, the First of Com- 
pany "G", was somewhat depleted and so we picked men from the 
Third Platoon to fill up our ranks. Lieut. Arthur Childers, who had 
commanded the Fourth Platoon, was placed second in command. 
At 8.15 A. M., we were on way to the train which was to carry us 
to Venice. As usual it was late — several hours late — and we were 
compelled to wait around a cold station until it put in an appearance. 




Platoon of Company "G". 332ncl Infantry, inarching down a street in Fiume. 



While waiting for the train Platoon Serg. Caler, who had been 
suffering from influenza, became very ill and he was sent to the 
hospital where he remained over two months. Sergeant Bivenour 
replaced Caler. 

About one o'clock the troop train pulled into the station and a 
platoon of half-frozen Yankees scrambled aboard. On arrival in 
Venice we were transferred to a harbor tug v/hich carried us down 



22 Ohio Dougliboys i7i Italy 

the Grand Canal to the Itahan destroyer "Audace", anchored in the 
Bay of Venice. 

Our "personally conducted" tour of Venice that time was very 
brief — we saw what we might while sailing down the Grand Canal 
on a moonlight night. Even in the dimness of the moonlight it 
seemed to be battle-scarred. Immense mounds of sand bags were 
still in place to protect, so far as possible, the treasured architecture 
of Venice. Perched on her thousand isles I thought, perhaps, she 
had seen almost as much history in the past three years as in the 
centuries from the time a band of inlanders settled there in order to 
be free from the depredations of the original non-aquatic Hun. At 
least she is now free from the peril of the present-clay follower of 
the Hun. As we sped through the silent night scene, I recalled a 
stanza in Byron's "Childe Harold." 

"In Venice Tasso's echoes are no more 

And silent rows the songless gondolier; 

Her palaces are crumbling to the shore, 

And Music meets not always now the ear; 

Those days are gone — but beauty still is here. 

States fall, arts fade — but Nature doth not die, 

Nor yet forget how Venice once was dear, 

The pleasant place of all festivity. 

The revel of the earth, the magic of Italy." 

There is probably more poetry than truth in these lines, but 
during the War she had been mauled to a certain but not serious 
extent. And, before many days have passed, Venice again will be 
"the revel of the earth". 

Out in the bay we boarded the destroyer and across the water 
the moon cast the shadows of the Campanile and the Doge's Palace. 

How many hob-nailed doughboys ever had the pleasure of a 
trip on board a destroyer? How many Marines? I don't see many 
hands up. I have heard of some fellows having a short trip on a 
destroyer, after being rescued from a torpedoed ship, but we had 
the unique experience of crossing the choppy Adriatic on a destroy- 
er. We had heard much about the bobbing cork-like antics of a 
destroyer; we learned more after leaving the shelter of the Island 
of Lido. The Commander of the ship warned us that we would en- 
counter rough weather; he turned out to be a good prophet. That 
was some wild night ride. We just held out and waited for day- 
light and the sight of land. Strange to say very few wTre sea-sick. 

Shortly after daybreak we sighted land and were soon thread- 
ing the mine fields. It was well for our peace of mind that we were 
only partly aware of the danger that beset us on all sides. Fortu- 
nately, the pilot hugged the shore and with the aid of his mine chart 
carried us safely to the dock. We could plainly seethe Island of 
Churso, the towns of Versura, Tourana, Velosco and Abbazia. 

About ten o'clock we sighted the beautiful city of Fiume. 



Ohio Doughboys in Italy 23 

Looking through field glasses my heart gave a sudden thrill, I saw 
"Old Glory" draped across the top of a magnificent building. I 
knew that no Americans were ahead of us and I could hardly believe 
that our recent enemies were actually welcoming us. However, 
such was the case. Our worries about a possible hostile reception 
had been groundless. An Italian officer informed me that my flag 
was draped on the palace of the governor of Fiume, an Austrian. 
The flag was a harbinger of the pleasant scenes to follow. 

Passing through the harbor it was noticed that a number of 
Italian warships had arrived ahead of us, carrying Italian soldiers. 
They gave us a continued ovation — these men who had fought 
with us from the Piave to the Tagliamentia. Our ship was warped 
to the dock a few yards from the Italian flagship, the "Emrnuele 
Filiberto". Later more Italian ships laden with soldiers arrived in 
the harbor until it seemed that Italy had sent at l-rast one division 
to Fiume. 




Around the "Filiberto," Fiume, Croatia, Nov. 17, 191S. 



The news of our arrival spread like the proverbial wild fire, 
and soon the dock was crowded with people who appeared to be 
anxiously r.waiting our landing. They came laden with flowers, 
mostly chrysanthemums, which they showered over us and the ship 
in wild profusion. They welcomed us to their city and, I felt cer- 
tain the welcome was from the heart. They bore not the slightest 
tinge of ill-feeling toward the United States, and I wish that I 
were able to convey in words the real greeting that we received 
and the feeling of satisfaction such a greeting gave to us, but this 
is one of those exceptional afi'airs of life that must be seen and 
heard to be properly understood. We seemed more like troops be- 
ing welcomed home than those about to occupy enemy territory. 



2.'f Ohio 1)0110111)01)8 in Italy 

Such hospitality must be appreciated by some token in word 
or act, so I climbed to the bridge of the ship, and through an inter- 
preter, told the people why we had come to Fiume and that we ap- 
preciated their reception. In answer one of the citizens of Fiume, 
who, I learned later, had been a colonel in the Austrian Army, in- 
formed us that the Austrian people had never considered us an 
enemy and had never wanted to fight against us. He also said: 
"We knew our country was wrong in the beginning, but we have 
a motto similar to yours, which is, 'My country right or wrong, 
but my country'. That is why we fought, now we are happy it is 
over. We welcome you to Fiume". That seemed almost too good 
to be true as it was so different from what we feared. 

A few minutes later I was called into conference with Italian 
officers who were discussing the advisability of an immediate land- 
ing. Some thought we should do so at once, but the majority, in- 
cluding the Italian fleet commander, thought it would be better to 
wait until the next day, and it was so ordered. 

That conference brought more forcibly to my attention than 
anything that ever happened before the force and intensity of the 
age-long hatred between the Austrian and Italian. Just as bitter 
on one side as on the other. We Americans were granted the free- 
dom of the city. Literally and metaphorically it was ours. But 
the Italians hesitated to make a landing even though a majority of 
the inhabitants are of Italian extraction. The neighboring city of 
Susac, separated from Plume by a small canal, was entirely Aus- 
trian or Jug-Slav and opposed the landing of Italian troops. My 
experiences on the Piave front and during the fighting across Vit- 
torio-Veneto had failed to impress me with the pent-up racial ha- 
tred as did the first day in Fiume. We also learned from dispatches 
that a regiment of Serbians had attempted to enter the city from 
the east, but were forced to retreat into the mountains. This inci- 
dent did not in the least encourage the Italians to make any rash 
adventures in the way of a precipitate landing. If ever there was 
a game calling for "the fine Italian hand", diplomacy, tact or what- 
ever name you wish to designate the delicate manipulations of those 
who represented difi"erent nations, it was played right there in 
Fiume. 

At the conference just referred to it was decided to transfer 
our men from the destroyer to the flagship "Emmanuele Filiberto" 
to spend the night in better and more commodious quarters than 
on the cramped destroyer. This was done at once. Later, she back- 
ed out from the wharf into the harbor. While on board the "Fili- 
berto", we were extended an exquisite courtesy that is possible only 
to the Latin races. Lieut. Childers and myself were made the 
guests of honor by the Admiral, while the warrant officers of the 
ship prepared a regular feast for the men. I took a look into their 
quarters and that was enough to convince me that they were well 
taken care of. 

That evening another conference was held and a number of 
Czecho-Slav officers who had been forced into the Austrian Army 



Ohio Doughboys in Italy 



25 



came aboard with the news that the Americans might land any 
time they wished to do so, but there was much uncertainty about 
the propriety of permitting the Italians to land. The Italian Ad- 
miral was plainly annoyed and becoming more anxious every min- 
ute. He was there to land his men but was afraid to do so. Not 
that he didn't have sufficient guns and men to force a landing but 
such a course was against his orders, probably — I never really 
knew. So another conference for the morrow was decided upon 
when the Czecho-Slav officers would m^ake another report. 

Although being entertained like princes of the royal blood we 
were "itching" to get ashore and see the "works go round", and 
to show our allies that we could keep them going in the right direc- 
tion, but we had to be patient and wait. 

Shortly after daybreak of the 17th the water between the 
"Filiberto" and shore was speckled with rowboats flower-laden for 
the Americans. Everyone wanted to come aboard and personally 
extend a welcome but only a very few were permitted. 




Just before the Landing of the first American Troops at P'iume, Dec. 17, 191S. 



Then cam.e the final conference aboard ship before the landing. 
The Czecho-Slav officers reported and, as a result of what they 
said, orders were issued that our one platoon of American soldiers 
would land first, to be followed by one company of Italian Marines, 
with other units to follow later. The zero hour, as it might be 
termed, was set at 4.00 P. M., and we began preparations for going 
ashore. Although by this time we were well convinced that our 
landing would be more in the nature of a reception than a hostile 
attitude, nevertheless, we were prepared for any emergency. Ev- 
ery man was ready to fight if called upon to do so. During the day 



26 Ohio Doughboys in Italy 

more battleships arrived and our landing was to be covered by the 
monster guns of these fighting fortresses. 

Exactly at four bugle call sounded and the gunners leaped to 
position, swinging their guns around and training them on the docks 
and other vital parts of the city. It was a wonderful and beautiful 
sight. Then over the side of the ship the platoon went into waiting 
barges which rowed them to the docks. The only hostility shown 
was between the natives themselves — they fought with each other 
to be in the forefront of the welcome and to be sure their own indi- 
vidual flowers were thrown on us or under our feet. The dock was 
crowded and we were compelled to gently force them away so as 
to provide space large enough to form into column of squads. 

Then the march to the palace began. It was a triumphal par- 
ade through crowds of cheering citizens who continued to pelt us 
with flowers. American flags were conspicuous everywhere. As 
we pushed the crowds back we were continually on the receiving end 
of well-directed kisses from toothless old ladies and buxom damsels. 
With every step we became more surprised at the sincere hospitali- 
ty of our late enemies — it really came deep from their hearts and 
we certainly appreciated it. 

Upon arriving at the governor's palace the Italians joined us 
and we went at once to his oflfice. He reluctantly turned over his 
sabre and bid us adieu. Guards were placed and billets found in a 
school a few yards from the palace. 

During all this time the Stars and Stripes were draped across 
the front of the palace. As this was the Italian Headquarters the 
Italian colors were flying from the flag pole on top of the building, 
but the way in which the Italian flag was immediately over ours 
was far from satisfactory, consequently, the next morning, when 
I saw that no change had been made in the flag arrangement I men- 
tioned it to the Italian Commander. He apologized and said he 
would take care of the matter. To our amazement, when we awoke 
the following morning we found the Italian colors still waving 
above the Stars and Stripes. Such seeming persistence in a dis- 
courteous attitude annoyed me, so I went to Italian Headquarters, 
voicing my complaint again. The old general was surprised that 
we should have any particular objection to the arrangement. He 
said : 

"Why, the British and French colors are not flying at ah." 

I then explained to him that we would be satisfied if all Allied 
flags were placed on the balcony below, where they would be on 
the same level, and in that case we would have no objection to the 
Italian colors flying alone at the top of the pole to denote their 
headquarters. This the general agreed to do. 

On the morning of the third day the flags had not been changed 
much to our chagrin, and the ire of the Americans ,was aroused 
almost to the breaking point. Just then Colonel EveVson and the 
Third Battalion, which had traveled overland from Cormons, ar- 
rived and the flag incident was turned over to him. After several 



Ohio Doughboys in Italy 27 

conversations with the Itahan Commander Colonel Everson suc- 
ceeded in having the flags properly placed from our viewpoint. 

The discourtesy, I am well convinced, was not intended as such ; 
merely a misunderstanding of two different nationalities having 
different ideas of the correct thing to do. 

While the flag affair was progressing a battalion each of 
French and British troops arrived in Fiume. While the hostility 
shown toward the Italians seemed quite natural in view of the 
accumulated hatred the two neighboring races had borne toward 
each, we were slightly surprised to see that neither the French 
nor British were anywhere near so well received as the Americans. 




"Bmanuele Filiberto", on which 332d was Quartered before Landing in Fiuiue. 

We remained with the 3rd Battalion for nearly a month. On 
the afternoon of Dec. 14th, we received orders that the Italian de- 
stroyer "Stocco" would sail for Cattaro at 4 o'clock the next morn- 
ing. 

We had been enjoying our life in Fiume and were reluctant to 
leave. Our own battalion was stationed at Cattaro, and of course 
we were to rejoin them at the earliest opportunity. So the next 
morning we bade farewell to Fiume and sped down the east coast 
of the Adriatic. I say sped because although the distance between 
Fiume and Cattaro is almost four hundred miles we made the trip 
in about twelve hours. 

Colonel Everson accompanied us, leaving Capt. Austin Story 
in command of the 3rd Battalion. The Colonel was to inspect the 
troops in Cattaro and then return to Fiume. 



28 



Ohio Dounhhoi/s in Italy 



The trip was a beautiful one, as we were always in sight of 
land and winding down through those rocky islands. Some of the 
larger islands are known as Veglia, Cherso, Orbe, Selvo, Brasso, 
Lissa, Lesina, Curzola and Meledo. 

The excitement of the trip came in the fact that we were sail- 
ing through mine fields continuously. We had a chart of the fields 
but that didn't always save the ship as the destroyer "Audace", 
which carried us from Venice to Fiume, had her stern blown off 
on the return trip over the same course we had traversed the night 
before. 

We arrived at Cattaro just at dusk and did not attempt to re- 
join our company, stationed in Telenika, until the next noon and of 
course, the first procedure was the "swapping of stories." 

I want to say of the men, during this detached service, that al- 
though the war was over they were all that could be desired as sol- 
diers and as gentlemen, they were perfect. They were a mighty 
fine "bunch" of fellows. 




Passing over the n.'iiairfd liiumi'. .MukiIh Kin.', 
ltal\, XoviMnl)<,T 1st, litlS. 



J 'diili'iioiie, 






CAPT. J. McKINNEY 



30 Ohio Doiighhoys in Italy 

SUSEK 

By Capt. J. McKiNis'EY. 

After the armistice with Austria, November 4th, 1918, Battal- 
ions of the 332nd Infantry were assigned to various stations — the 
3rd Battalion to Fiume, Istria. Departing from Cormons, Istria, 
by rail, the troops rode three days in what was one day a first-class 
train but now only a junk pile with all the seats missing and with 
such other "minor" defects. Our reception at Fiume was of a pe- 
culiar nature. It appeared that all Fiume would have been very 
glad to receive the Americans alone but as a brigade of Italian 
troops arrived at the same time the spirit of the citizens of Fiume 
was dampened. The town is divided Iby a river; the people on one 
side were mostly Italian, on the other side mostly Croations. The 
Croations were anxious to see that the Americans lacked for noth- 
ing, especially in the way of amusements. There was a standing 
invitation for American officers and soldiers to join their parties. 
This spirit on the part of the Croations was of great value to the 
morale of the troops since they had just recently conducted an of- 
fensive campaign. So finally the differences were adjusted. 

Upon our arrival, Companies I, K, L, and M, were each assign- 
ed one floor of the University Building. The officers were quarter- 
ed at places of more comfortable character, as the Rooming Houses, 
Hotels and the like. 

Captain Austin P. Story was in charge — a small m?n physical- 
ly, but every inch a soldier, a man possessed of all the training 
mentally and morally that is required of a good leader: a man of 
Tactics along military lines. 

About 2.30 A. M., November 23rd, two days after we arrived 
there, the orderly from Battalion Headquarters called for the offic- 
ers in com.mand of Companies K and M (K Company being com- 
manded by Capt. Wilbur M. White and M Company being command- 
ed by the writer) . We were ordered to report at once to the Com- 
manding Officer, Capt. Story. He instructed Capt. White and me to 
march across bridge into Susek, located just across a bridge, and 
there to search for hidden Austrian soldiers and to protect all im- 
portant roads leading to Fiume and Susek. Rushing to where my 
Company was billeted, I gave orders for the Companv to form at 
4.00 A. M. 

A captain sent to us by the Italian Headquarters, brought or- 
ders that a company of Itahan troops was to march on Susek with 
us ; that both our men and theirs were to march single file, the com- 
manding officers in the center of the street two abreast, the Italian 
Officers on the left, the American Officers on the right. Captain 
White took a different route with Company "K". The troops, form- 
ed in the order as mentioned above, started to m- rch at Zero hour 



Ohio Doughbotjs i)i Italy 31 

(5.30 A. M.) November 23rd. Two armored Motor Trucks were 
assigned to each unit and these led the way, gunners at their places 
ready to defend the troops and prevent surprise. We reached Susek 
about 8.30 A. M., after combing the country and all buildings en 
route. At what had been a prominent school building we found 
some Austrian teachers and professors. A guard commanded by 
Lieutenant Hooper and Lieutenant Jones, consisting of two squads 
from each platoon was designated to handle the situation. A brief 
conversation through my interpreter informed me that several Aus- 
trian soldiers were living in a school building near. Learning the 
exact location I sent Sergeant Ray Kelly of Company "M" with 
two squads to search all the surrounding buildings. He reported 
back with four or five Austrian captives. The outpost reported to 
me, as Senior Officer, that a Field Artillery Gun had been discov- 
ered at a position overlooking the bay of Fiume. This gun was a 




In front of School Building, Fiume. 

6-inch in calibre and had evidently been concealed for the purpose 
of protecting the Harbor of Fiume. A large Range Finder left 
by retreating soldiers was also found concealed in a separate 
building. 

I visited the Professor for a second conference and instructed 
my Interpreter to remain with me and to pretend that he only un- 
derstood French and Italian. After talking in both French and 
Italian the professor asked if he spoke German, to which he replied 
"No" (though perfect in speaking the German Language). I no- 
ticed a peculiar expression on the face of the professor and at this 
time three other apparently distinguished college men arrived. 
The group talked German and as I watched my Interpreter I notic- 
ed he nodded his head to me to indicate that he understood what 
they were talking about. Departing from the room, giving for an 
excuse that I v/ished to talk with the soldiers, I asked the Inter- 
preter to tell me what they were saying. He said that a son of the 
Professor, a student before the War, was concealed in the building 



Ohio Doughboys in Italij S3 

in the uniform of an Austrian soldier. Later we found him hiding 
behind a large book case — a youth of about 17 years. This little 
excitement was about all there was to our "invasion" of Susek. 

After remaining in Susek until late in the evening and until 
our rations were nearly all gone, I sent a message to the Battalion 
Commander stating that our mission had been accomplished and 
that relief by troops fully equipped was deemed advisable. About 
10.00 P. M., Companies "I" and "L", being the remainder of the 
troops stationed at Fiume, arrived and took up the position held by 
"K" and "M" Company. Upon our return to Fiume the General in 
command of the City issued orders that there be an Inter-Allied 
patrol formed to march together on the streets, an American, 
British, French, and Italian side by side. 

My Company ("M") was permitted to hold dances in the Gym- 
nasium of the school building. Field Kitchens and Garrison Ra- 




Austrian Soldiers found hiding in Scliool Building, Fiume. 



tions afforded relief after the Hard Tack used several days. The 
conduct of the enlisted men was wonderful. Each took pride in his 
own company. Never will enough credit be given the enlisted men 
v/ho served in Italy, for they made the Regiment one of the most 
famous of any Infantry unit of the A. E. F. I can truthfully say, 
after serving twelve years in the U. S. Army, that the Non-Com- 
missioned officers of my company were the most efficient of any 
that I have ever met. This not only applying to my own Company 
but likewise to the various other Companies as well. 



Ohio Douglihoys in lialy 35 

MONTENEGRO 

BY LIEUT. AUGUST F. RENDIGS, JK. 
I 

The Second Battalion of the 332nd Infantry arrived in the 
harbor of Cattaro, on Thursday, November 28, 1918, after a de- 
lightful and uneventful trip across the calm, blue Adriatic Sea. 
The voyage from Venice required five days, so the S. S. "Argen- 
tina", assigned to the Battalion for this particular voyage, could 
not possibly be classified as an ocean greyhound, Venice — "en- 
throned on her thousand isles" — is glorious ; Cattaro is a tiny port 
with little else than the glory of her past, whatever that may be. 

However, Cattaro is the most important port on the commer- 
cially unimportant Dalmatian Coast. During its existence through 
the centuries, Cattaro has seen a variety of rulers. Romans, By- 
zantines, Bulgarians, Venetians, Bosnians, Turks, Austrians, Span- 
ish, French, Serbians, Montenegrins, English and a few others have 
had a try at running the place. They did one thing — gave it a 
delightfully cosmopolitan character. Consequently we were greet- 
ed by a mixture of nationalities found only in a petty Balkan State 
or a great American City. Our steamer was warped to the pier 
amid the blaring of a Serbian band and the wild huzzahs of the 
throng. 

Major Scanlon, Battalion Commander, immediately reported 
to the Italian Land Commander in compliance with orders, but this 
gentleman was seemingly very surprised, as he claimed to have had 
no prior knowledge of our arrival, but he suggested that the Major 
report to the Naval Commander. That official likewise was all "at 
sea" and would give no orders ; he suggested that we remain aboard 
ship pending the arrival of orders. 

Our anxiety to learn the drift of developments was not long 
deferred ; on the following morning orders were issued to Company 
"F" to prepare at once for a trip into Montenegro; Cettinje, the 
capital, being our assigned destination. 

At 2 P. M,, November 22, we formed in line on the Cattaro 
dock ; and marching through the little town, under command of 
Captain Southworth, we slowly proceeded along a tortuous moun- 
tain road. The grade was ever-ascending it seemed. 

Later in the day we were pleased to meet our old friend Major 
Allegretti, who is well remembered by every one on the "Sectora- 
Americano" front on the Piave. He, with a command of Italian 
troops, was on the way to Cettinje, and would accompany us. 

About an hour after our departure. Major Scanlon was in- 
formed by the senior Italian officer that an Italian force had been 



sr, 



Ohio ]>()U<ilih()us in Itdlij 



prevented from entering Montenegro three days previous ; and had 
been fired upon by the Montenegrins. The Italian Commander im- 
parted the further information that he had given orders to go in 
at any cost; and would overcome resistance by force if need be. 
Participation in an adventure of this kind was not in our schedule, 
so the Italian was informed that our force would take no part in 
offensive operations against either Montenegrin faction. 

We had been informed by Captain Southworth prior to depar- 
ture for the mountain trip, of the delicate situation confronting 
the small band of Americans. Italy was seeking control ; the Mon^ 
tenegrins were divided among themselves, but united against Italy. 




Group of Italian and American Ofiiccrs — Left to Right: Capt. Vaiigh, Capt. Scanland, 
Gen. Ferrari, Gen. Pecori Geraldi, Col. Tacoli. Col. Gregory, Capt. Vieth, Maj. 
McGraw, and Lieut. Treves. Taken Sept. 7, 191S, in Camp near Vallegio. 

The "City Party" was in favor of the new Jugo-Slav Kingdom, 
whereas the "Country Party", consisting chiefly of peasants, want- 
ed a republic. There was a possibility, the Captam added, that our 
coming might not be welcome; the Montenegrins might express 
their resentment in the form of machine gun and rifle bullets. In 
the event of attack, we were not to fire without orders. Nobody 
wanted to do any shooting and it was hoped it would get through 
without trouble. 

It was now apparent why Major Allegretti, the diplomat and 
tactician, was along. 

After joining the Italian forces we proceeded up, up famous 
Mount Lovchen. This is the part of "Balkan Switzerland", which 



Ohio Douglilxjys in liahj 31 

was considered impregnable. But the Austrians captured it just 
the same ; although it has been said that the Montenegrin King 
might have put up a better defense; in other words he has been 
rightfully or wrongly accused of being quite willing that Austria 
should capture it. 

The march up, up Mount Lovchen ! Who among those of Com- 
pany "F" will ever forget it? Not one. It is burned — aye, liter- 
ally frozen — in their memories. The night was dark and a cold, 
stinging wind added neither joy nor comfort to the trip up the 
winding mountain trail. 

The packs were unusually heavy and necessarily so, although 
wearisome to a degree seldom realized in marching because of the 
poor road and ever-ascending grade. Full packs, two extra blan- 
kets, additional ammunition and overcoat made a load of over 75 
pounds. All this we carried while climbing Mount Lovchen on a 
cold, windy winter night. 

Every hour we were permitted ten-minute halts which gave 
us a short breathing spell ; then on we went ever climbing that 
mountain, the top of which it seemed would never be reached. 
Many men were compelled to drop out from sheer exhaustion. By 
the time the mountain top was reached a count revealed the fact 
that nearly fifty men out of a total of 190 were behind straggling 
to catch up with those who were fortunate to have the unusual 
stamina to carry them along with the main body. 

About eleven o'clock we arrived at Krystak, a little mountain 
village at the very crest of Mount Lovchen. This diminutive moun- 
tain village consisted of two houses and an Austrian built barrack. 
The command to halt and turn in for the night was never more 
welcome than it was that night after the long, zigzag climb laden 
with an unusually heavy pack. We were soon fast asleep on the 
straw-strewn floor. 

The morning found us on the march again. This time down 
hill, until the miniature village of Niegush was reached, and where 
we were met by a party of Serbians. A parley ensued, as the 
Serbs and Montenegrins opposed the entrance of Italian troops ; 
seemingly they would welcome us alone, but our company they 
keenly resented. Anyway, we were permitted to go along a little 
further. 

We then started up another steep grade to the top of a second 
mountain ; a five-hour gruelling march. Our noon-day chow was 
eaten on the crest of the mountain, and during the afternoon we 
descended to the village of Dubrovik, one mile from Cettinje. 
Here we had another parley. 

This time both civil and military officers informed our com- 
mander that Americans were welcome, but not the Italians. Cettin- 
je would open her gates and arms to us, but not to our companions. 
As a result of this talk it was decided that Captain Southworth 
with Lieutenant Speakman, as interpreter, would accompany the 
local dignitaries to Cettinje, and there consult the higher nabobs. 
After a delay that seemed unusually long, the two officers returned 



^,s' Ohio Doughhoys in Italy 

with a reiteration of the samb old story : Americans are welcome, 
but not Italians. 

That night a heavy snow fall made us fearful lest we might 
be snow-bound. We were informed that during winter the roads 
leading to Cattaro were often blocked for months — a cheering pros- 
pect. That night we billeted in huts. 

The next day found us all in Krystak, where we were billeted 
in the fairly comfortable barracks, built by the Austrians during 
their occupancy. As the snow had turned to a pouring rain, Cap- 
tain Southworth deemed it advisable to return to Cattaro with all 
possible speed. The Italians also desired to leave the vicinity of 
Cettinje, where they were so unwelcome. 




Austrian S. S. "Ferencez Ferdinand", used as Headqiiaiteis for the Amei'ican Forces 

in Finnie. 



We returned through the mountains by a better route than 
that on the outward trip. On November 31 we arrived at our 
barracks in Teodo, where we remained during our stay in Dalma- 
tia. Teodo is a short distance from Cattaro, on the water front. 

Thanksgiving of '18 will be long remembered by every man at 
Cattaro. Coffee without milk or sugar, mouldy bread, macaroni, 
beef and rice, constituted the menu of that festive day. We long- 
ingly thought of the fat turkeys, pumpkin pies, "an' everything 
else" at home, but our sadness was sweetened by th<3 hope that the 
shores of Dalmatia would soon be seen fading from our view as we 
would homeward go. 



Oliio Doughbofis in Itdhi 39 

During the week that followed we engaged in close-order drill, 
and took up a rather comprehensive guard-duty, which included 
the little village ; and its docks, loaded with vast quantities of mu- 
nitions, war materials, clothing, shoes and flour, landed from a 
number of Austrian battleships that had been captured and were 
interned in the harbor. We had been requested by the Allied Com- 
mission, composed of officers of the American, French and British 
navies, to furnish daily a large detail for work in unloading large 
shells and other material from the Austrian vessels and in dis- 
mantling and disarming them. This work was soon commenced 
and in a short time the Austrian vessels were without the where- 
withal aboard to sail or fight. 

Christmas Day was a decided improvement over Thanksgiv- 
ing. During the month the paymaster arrived with current and 
back pay. Packages from home and the Red Cross certainly im- 
proved the atmosphere of those barracks. 

New Year's Day was very much like Christmas Day. In the 
morning we played basket ball against the American jackies on the 
destroyer *'Luce", and gave them a walloping to the score of 47 — 2. 
In the afternoon we had inter-platoon games, which created great 
competition and amusement between the various platoons. We 
were fortunate in procuring a large, abandoned arsenal, which, 
with a little labor, afforded a splendid site for basket ball. The 
food on New Year's Day was a duplicate of that on Christmas. 
In the evening we enjoyed a Smoker, and a lecture by Captain 
Southworth, on the Balkan situation. 



II 

On the morning of January 6, at six-thirty, Capt. Southworth 
left in a small Fiat roadster, accompanied by his chauffeur and an 
interpreter. They took the shortest road over the mountains into 
Montenegro. At Reveille we broke the news to the company as 
gently as possible, that it was probable that we would follow short- 
ly. None of us were enthusiastic about going, knowing from our 
past experience the difficulties that we would encounter, and feeling 
that the expedition this time should be put on the shoulders of one 
of the other companies in the battalion. However, we were fairly 
certain that we should go, so we made our preparations for an early 
departure, all the while hoping and praying that the order would 
not come. At eleven-five a courier arrived by automobile, with an 
order from Major Scanlon, directing our Company Commander to 
report with three platoons of the Company at Battalion Headquar- 
ters at Cattaro not later than four-thirty P. M. of the same day. 
We were to leave the remaining platoon, with Lieut Oberlin in 
charge, at Teodo to carry on the work w^hich we had been engaged 
in. We had a hasty dinner, packed our belongings, and moved out 
with three platoons at one-forty P. M., leaving behind the one pla- 
toon, as ordered. It was made up largely of cripples and weaklings 
of the Company and those who were not likely to stand the gaff 



.'/O Ohio Doughboys in Italy 

After three hours of hard marching, we arrived in Cattaro and bil- 
leted our men in the town, after which we reported to Battalion 
headquarters to attend an Officers' Meeting which had been called 
there at four-thirty. 

Major Scanlon presided and explained in detail the situation 
in Montenegro, and stated that the following day our three platoons 
would again cross the mountains into that country. He told us 
that there was heavy fighting going on between the Revolutionists 
and the Government Forces ; that our mission would be to stop the 
fighting as expeditiously as possible, and then to distribute eighty 
thousand sacks of white flour which had just arrived from the 




Chaplain Major Doiiglieity Presenting Flag from New York Sons of Italy to Co. "I", 
Color Company, 332nd Regiment Infantry, October 7, 1918, near Trevisio. 



United States on board a supply ship then anchored in the harbor. 
The people in Montenegro were said to be starving, and it was hoped 
that, coming as we did, to distribute the flour, our influence among 
them would be powerful and that we would be enabled to stop the 
fighting at an early date. The Major also explained the attitude 
of the various governments having interests in the little country, 
namely, Italy, Serbia and France, and pointed out that our own at- 
titude was to be strictly neutral and that we should endeavor to 
conduct the expedition so as to avoid casualties. That night we 
officers slept with the officers of H. Company, and J;he men were 
billeted in good buildings and slept on straw mattres'ses. 

Tuesday morning, January 7th, after an early breakfast, we 



Ohio Doughboys in Italy hi 

loaded with our equipment two large army trucks which were to 
accompany us, and started out at seven-thirty on our second expe- 
dition into Montenegro. The start of this expedition, however, was 
vastly different from that of the first one. This time we traveled 
without packs, carrying only our side arms and rifles. The trucks 
hauled the remainder of our equipment over the regular route 
which we had traversed on our first trip, while, in single file, we 
climbed a mountain pass. It was great fun at first — the novelty 
of the thing — but finally it became very fatiguing, and the last 
hour, especially, was sheer upward climbing. We arrived at the 
top of Mount Lovchen after three hours of this strenuous exercise, 
and proceeding through the pass proper, we were halted by a mes- 
sage which Capt. Southworth had sent back, directing us to billet 
at Krystak in the same Austrian barracks where we had spent sev- 
eral nights during our first expedition. We followed these instruc- 
tions, and that afternoon about four o'clock Capt. Southworth 
joined us there, coming by auto from Cettinje, the machine carry- 
ing a large white flag. 

Capt. Southworth immediately sent a written communication 
to Major Scanlon at Cattaro, and then recounted to us his exper- 
iences from the time of leaving us at Teodo. He told us that there 
was fighting outside Cettinje and in the surrounding mountains 
between two parties, one of which was termed the "City Party", 
which was the present Montenegrin Government committed to a 
union with the Jugo-Slav state under Serbia, and the other called 
the "Country Party", which included mostly the peasants from the 
mountainous regions, who claimed that they wanted a republic. 
The City Party were assisted, at least sub rosa, by the Serbians, and 
had the upper hand at that time, having driven the Country Party 
back into the fastnesses of the mountains, from where they were 
having some difficulty in dislodging them. The former had rifles, 
machine guns, and some small artillery, while the Country Party — 
the real revolutionists — were poorly armed and organized, possess- 
ing only rifles and hand grenades which they had gathered from the 
stores abandoned in that vicinity by the Austrians in their flight. 
Capt. Southworth's efforts up to that time had been directed toward 
the cessation of hostilities, but to no avail. On his way into Cettinje 
his party had been halted by the heavy firing, and a Montenegrin 
woman from a hut nearby had quickly torn off her petticoat and 
made a white flag of it, under the protection of which he proceeded. 
They were fired upon again, however, and a bullet went through 
the fender of the car, but fortunately no one was hurt. 

It was decided that we should remain in Krystak for the night 
at least, and we settled down accordingly. We were visited oy the 
French General and his Staff, who directed \v^ to niove the follow- 
ing day, into Niegush, a smafl town about three kilometers nearer 
to Cettinje than our barracks at Krystak, and siluated on the main 
highway. The night passed without incident, although frequent 
bursts of machine gun and rifle fire and some occasional artillery 
fire could be heard in the direction of Cettinje. At one P. M. the 
next day we moved out in the direction of Niegush, where we arriv- 



Ji2 Ohio D(/i(<jhboijs in Italy 

ed forty-five minutes later and were soon established in fairly com- 
fortable billets. 

That afternoon Capt. Soiithworth participated in three confer- 
ences: the first one with the Serbian Major in command of the 
town, Alexandrovitch, relative to the defense of the same in case 
of an attack that night, which was expected from the City Party; 
the next conference Capt. Southworth held with us, and it was de- 
sided that, in case of an attack, the three platoons of the company 
should take up certain positions under cover in three different 
places, and that we should take no part in the fighting, since it was 
not directed against us, unless it should develop in the nature of a 




Major Scanlaiul. 2nd Batt.. 332nd Regiment Infantry, and his Adjutant, Lieut. 
Hamilton, at Codroipo, Italy, Nov. 5. 1918. 



general massacre of the civilian population, in which case we would 
interfere to avoid pillaging; the third conference was held between 
Capt. Southworth and the leaders of the Revolutionists, or Country 
Party, who disclosed their program to Capt. Southworth and reit- 
erated their demands and determination to keep on fighting until 
they achieved their object. Their attitude was described by Capt 
Southworth as uncompromising, and we all felt gloomy over the 
prospects of a cessation of the fighting. That night we surrounded 
our barracks with a fairly heavy guard, and all men were ordered 
to sleep fully clothed. 

The night passed without incident. Early in the morning of 
the ninth we could make out, through our glasses, large parties of 



Ohio Doiighboys in Italy 43 

armed Montenegrins moving along the top of the surrounding 
mountain ridges which enclosed Niegush, and it was thought that 
these parties were about to attack the town. However, they even- 
tually disappeared from view, and we waited to see what would 
happen. In the afternoon I procured permission from Capt. South- 
worth to take Corporal Chandler of my platoon with me for the 
purpose of exploring the surrounding mountains and the passes 
leading up to them. The Corporal and I went up to the top of the 
nearest ridge, and discovered a band of revolutionists, numbering 
about fifty, holding the pass. They were a most picturesque group, 
ragged, wild-eyed, half starved, with long unkempt beards and 
moustaches, and closely resembled a group of banditti. They were 
friendly to us and expressed a desire to lay down their arms and 
go back to their homes, but said that they were afraid to do so for 
fear that they would be run down and put to death by the Govern- 
ment Forces. They plead with us to remain there with them, but 
we paid no heed to their urgings. They were then courteous enough 
to send one of their number back with us for safe conduct. That 
night I went on as Officer of the Day, and we again took elaborate 
precautions against an attack on the town by the City Party. The 
night again passed without incident, although some desultory ar- 
tillery and machine gun firing could be heard in the mountains. 

On January 10th, the next day, our labors began to bear fruit. 
About two hundred revolutionists came in and surrendered their 
arms to us, and each one received a safeguard from the Serbian 
Major, Alexanclrovitch. An incident to their surrender occurred, 
which is worth relating. It had been arranged that they would 
surrender their arms to us at one o'clock in the afternoon, on a 
small plain near Niegush. At the appointed time the Revolution- 
ists began to appear from different parts of the mountains, and 
gathered at one side of the plain. A small detachment of the Gov- 
ernment Forces suddenly appeared on the opposite side of the plain. 
Capt. Southworth, Lieut. Speakman and squad of Americans were 
standing in the center of the plain, ready to receive the Revolution- 
ists' arms. The Revolutionists, seeing the Government Forces on 
the opposite side of the plain, became excited, and one of them 
fired a rifle. Immediately both forces flung themselves to the 
earth in skirmish line, and an interchange of shots ensued, with 
the Americans in between the opposing lines. Capt. Southworth 
with rare presence of mind, held up his hand with a commanding 
gesture, and after about twenty shots had been fired by the two 
sides, the firing ceased as suddenly as it began. Officers from both 
sides immediately ran forward and off'ered their apologies and re- 
grets to Capt. Southworth and the Americans for this untoward 
incident. Fortunately there were no casualties, but if there had 
been, it would have taken something more than apologies or regrets 
to have squared things. 

As soon as the Revolutionists were disarmed they were sent 
down under guard to Cattaro, to be put to work unloading the flour 
off of the U. S. Supply Ship "Western Plains", which had anchored 



Ji-'i Ohio DoiKjhhoi/s in Italy 

there with white flour on board for the rehef of the starving Mon- 
tenegrins. 

The next morning, the eleventh, there appeared on the sky line 
of the mountains in the rear of us a great many Montenegrins of 
the City Party, all armed and with the evident intent of advancing 
upon the little town. This caused a great deal of excitement in 
Niegush among the Country Party and inhabitants and many came 
into the enclosed area occupied by our troops seeking the protection 
of the American flag floating overhead, while others gathered in 
groups in the main street. Down the mountains came the Monten- 
egrins in single file, chanting their war songs. We ordered our 




Americans Posting- Guard on Northeastern Hill of Fiume, Nov. 27. 191S. 



men to get under arms, remain in their billets and await orders. 
The Serbian Major, Capt. South worth and the town Mayor, hasten- 
ed out to meet the oncoming "City Party", who were advancing 
swiftly but cautiously in our direction. They halted at our first 
outpost line and, after some parleying, Capt. Southworth induced 
them to give up their intention of occupying the town and to billet 
in two small barracks just outside the confines of the little village. 
This they agreed to do, and one of our officers, with a squad of men, 
escorted them to these billets and distributed several boxes of our 
American "hard tack" among them. We then put ^out another 
strong outpost between these newcomers and the town, and trusted 
to luck that everything would remain calm. 



Ohio Doughdoys in Italy 45 

January 12th proved to be a calm day. The officer attached to 
our regiment, for the purpose of taking moving pictures, visited us 
and took pictures of our company, the Montenegrin and Serbian 
companies, our group of officers, the villagers dancing the "Kola", 
etc. This dance, which is the native Slav dance, is very popular in 
the Balkans. The participants join hands and form a circle, and 
the dance itself takes on the form of our old quadrille, or rather, 
our Schottisch. Late that afternoon I started to Cattaro on an 
army truck with a corporal, our intentions being to bring back some 
articles of apparel from the Officers' Baggage, which we had been 
informed had just arrived. On our way we were delayed for half 
an hour by the explosion of a large magazine full of high explosive 
.shells and ammunition, which suddenly blew up in the neighborhood 
of Krystak. This caused a great deal of excitement, but no loss of 
life, and was said to have been the act of the Revolutionists. We 
reached Cattaro in time for supper and spent the night there with 
the officers and men of Company H. Next morning, in company 
with two naval officers and our Regimental Personnel Officer, we 
returned with the desired baggage to Niegush Nothing new de- 
veloped during the day except that we heard from the French Gen- 
eral that our company would shortly leave for Cettinje to occupy 
that much-beleagured city for a short period. 

The following morning Lieuts. Craig and Speakman went to 
Cettinje by automobile to inspect the billets that had been set apart 
for us there, and, returning in the afternoon, reported that the bil- 
lets had been thoroughly disinfected and were now ready for occu- 
pancy. On the fifteenth a ration truck from Cattaro arrived at 
eleven in the morning, carrying our rations and bringing orders 
from the French General, directing us to move into Cettinje at once. 
Our departure took place at one o'clock that afternoon, the men 
carrying only a light pack containing their overcoats. The first 
squad from my platoon was left behind in Niegush, in charge of a 
sergeant for police purposes. We managed to procure one other 
truck in addition to the ration truck, and with these transported the 
greater part of our baggage. We decided not to march on the road, 
but struck out through the mountains along a rocky trail. It was 
steep, but picturesque, and we thoroughly enjoyed our trip, which 
we made in a leisurely manner. 

At 3.30 we reached the outskirts of Cettinje, where we were 
joined by Capt. Southworth, who had gone ahead by automobile. 
At this point a short stop was made to permit the men to don their 
overcoats so as to hide the ragged condition of our uniforms. After 
readjusting our light packs and seeing that everything was condu- 
cive to a favorable appearance and impression, we started into the 
town. The Montenegrin military authorities, who had been ap- 
prised of our coming, sent out a brass band to meet us, and we pur- 
sued our march into the town, led by this band and with the Amer- 
ican colors at our head. The flag was carried by a picturesque Mon- 
tenegrin old man, who made a grotesque attempt to keep in step 
with the music and our troops. I believe I am justified in saying 
that it was the proudest moment of his lifetime. 



v> 



Ohio DoiKjhhoi/s in Italy 



The town turned out en masse ivnd lined the streets and side- 
walks to cheer us. As we reached Montenegrin Military headquar- 
ters we were halted, and the band struck up "America", which they 
mistook for our national anthem. In order to tactfully cover up the 
mistake, our company presented arms, and at the conclusion of the 
anthem the people cheered us wildly in true Jugo-Slav fashion. We 
resumed our march through the city to our billets, and upon arrival 
there the Company of Montenegrins which had accompanied us as 
a guard of honor, was drawn up in company front, facing our own 








Major William G. Everson firing rifle from firing step in l^'ront Line, 
Headquarters, on Piave Front near Varago, Sept. 30, 1918. 



2nd Batt. 



troops. We were then welcomed in English by a Serbian officer, 
representing the Serb military authorities, and by a certain Mon- 
tenegrin Major, representing the Montenegrin military. Our cap- 
tain responded in behalf of the Americans, and at the conclusion of 
his remarks the band again rendered "America" followed by the 
Jugo-Slav national anthem, after which our officers shook hands 
all around, and we were permitted to enter our billets. These were 
comfortable enough since we were lodged in two large two-and-a- 
half story stucco houses of modern American design, both of them, 
to our delight, equipped with electric light and steam heat. Since, 
however, for some reason or other, there was no electricity in the 
town at night, our electrics did us no good ; and since we were with- 
out fuel to keep our furnace going, we receivet* no bervafit from the 
latter, so that both of our modern improvements were dismal fail- 
ures. However, we managed to rig up some old-fashioned stoves 



Ohio Doiighhoi/s in Italy 47 

for all of the rooms which we used, and thus made ourselves fairly 
comfortable. 

The next few days we spent in getting acquainted with Cettinje 
and were surprised by a short visit from Col. Wallace. The most 
interesting thing in Cettinje we found to be an extraordinary relief 
map of the entire country and a few adjacent provinces, which had 
been built during the war by Italian prisoners under Austrian di- 
rection, occupying two years in building. It was a wonderful crea- 
tion about twenty-five feet square, and showed the different moun- 
tain elevations, roads, bodies of water and the towns with their 
little clusters of houses. Among the other interesting things was 
an ancient stone monastery in the chapel of which was a casket, 
said to contain the body of the grandfather of the present King of 
Serbia. The King's palace and the Crown Prince's palace were also 
of interest to us as were the numerous Legations which had been 
maintained by the different countries in the little capital before 
the war. The inhabitants were also erecting a large monument to 
the memory of the soldiers of the Government who had fallen dur- 
ing the revolution which we had just assisted in putting down. 
This was a striking instance of the promptness of the Montenegrins 
in honoring their soldier dead. 

There were numerous liquor and coffee shops where, for con- 
siderable outlay, one could procure fairly good coffee and some ex- 
cellent cake, which was a treat for us. It was a typical capital of a 
little Balkan country, torn with revolution but with a certain quiet 
dignity withal. In the late afternoon the better class of civilian 
would promenade, the men carrying their walking sticks and the 
women wearing their lorgnettes. 

On the 20th Lieuts. Speakman and Craig and I, journeyed to 
Rjecka by machine. We found this little town located a number of 
miles nearer the heart of the Balkans on the other side of Cettinje, 
and consequently inhabited by many other nationalities, contribut- 
ing to its picturesqueness. 

During the following v/eek a number of funerals were held in 
Cettinje of officers and men of the Government forces who died as 
the result of wounds received in the revolution. These were very 
ceremonious occasions and were always of a military nature. Our 
officers took turns in attending them, as the official representatives 
of the United States. At this time, too, we were blessed with the 
arrival in Cettinje of three American Red Cross nurses, who were 
the advance agents for a number who were to follow. They v/ere 
working under the auspices of the American Red Cross Food & 
Sanitation Ccmmission For The Balkans, and they stayed for only 
a week, to our regret. We enjoyed a number of impromptu card 
parties with them, and they were equally as gracious to our men. 
On the 22nd our Officers attended a Tea given by M. and Mile. 
Mittanovitch, in cur honor. Our host and hostess were the most 
prominent civilians in town, M. Mittanovitch being the leading at- 
torney. It was an interesting gathering of about thirty, including 
several richly gowned women who were introduced to us as the 
wives of the ex-ministers in the Cabinet of the former King. There 



^8 Ohio DoKiiTiboj/s in Italy 

were also several gorgeously attired Serbian and Montenegrin offic- 
ers, and we enjoyed the singular experience. 

On the 24th, the National Commission of Montenegro tendered 
a luncheon to all of the Allied Officers in Cettinje. We, of course, 
attended, as did also our Red Cross nurses. This was a very large 
and elaborate affair, with much formality in evidence. There were 
about fifty present, including the brother of the former Queen and 
the "Metropolitan" — the highest prelate of the Greek Catholic 
Church for that district. The Queen's brother was attired in mag- 
nificent native costume, with large sparkling rings on each of his 
fingers. From his conversation and general actions, he impressed 




Crossing the Piave River near 



Grave de Papadopoli 
Oct. 31, 191S. 



Italy, on a Pontoon Bridge, 



US as a great booby, and this impression was borne out by his repu- 
tation. Ten elaborate courses were served, including three different 
kinds of meat, and champagne and wine flowed in abundance. At 
the conclusion of the meal proper there was the usual exchange of 
toasts on behalf of each of the different nations, after which we 
made our adieus. The whole affair had lasted some two hours, and 
we were surfeited with the food which we had received. We could 
not help but remark that there seemed to be food in the country 
for those who had access to it, although the common people, as we 
had seen them, were starving. 

Late that afternoon we received word that there were four 
revolutionary officers hiding in the mountains nearby, who desired 



Ohio Doughhoys in Ittih/ ^9 

to come in under the protection of the Americans and give them- 
selves up. We sent word back by their messenger that they should 
come to the edge of the town and notify us. A ripple of excitement 
was caused the following morning by the execution of a deputy 
sheriff who had proved himself a traitor. He was taken to the edge 
of the town and made to dig his own grave, at the conclusion of 
which he stood with his back to the same at the foot of it. A volley 
of rifle shots tumbled him into place, and he was soon covered with 
earth. 

Shortly after the noon meal word was brought in that the four 
revolutionary officers were at the edge of the town. I volunteered 
to get them and took a squad of men with me. We went to the 
edge of the town about two miles away, and, climbing up over the 
rocks found our Montenegrin revolutionists. They were one cap- 
tain and three lieutenants. We disarmed them, brought them back 
under the protection of our fixed bayonets, fed them, and turned 
them over to the Montenegrin authorities. That night we four 
officers cut cards for choice of their revolvers. I drew the Queen 
of Hearts, so the first choice was mine. 

The following day, January 26th, happened to be my birthday. 
Shortly after dinner we received secret orders to move back to 
Teodo as soon as possible. I left at once with the wagon train and 
a half platoon of men, starting from Cettinje at 3.30 in the after- 
noon. We had gone about an hour and were just entering the 
mountains when a snow-storm came up, which made the roads al- 
most impassable. We struggled on for four hours through ice and 
snow, sometimes up to the hubs of our wheels, and in places were 
obliged to stop every hundred yards to regain our strength and to 
afford our mules some much-needed rest. After traversing the 
perilous mountain passes safely, we finally reached Niegush at 8.15 
that evening, where we stopped. We were soaked through from 
our experience, but I had sent word ahead of our coming and the 
squad there had a warm supper prepared for us, which we supple- 
mented with some of the native white whiskey as a preventive 
against the "flu". 

We spent the night there, and the next morning at 7.30 started 
for Teodo, where we arrived without further incident shortly after 
noon. At five P. M. the same day, our company in charge of Lieuts. 
Craig and Speakman, came in. They had left Cettinje that morn- 
ing at seven o'clock and had marched the twenty-three miles 
through the snow-covered mountain passes and over the roads, 
with only a short stop at Niegush for dinner. They were completely 
worn out but glad to be back, and we welcomed with satisfaction 
a number of improvements which had been made in our billets at 
Teodo during our absence, including the installation of electric 
lights, which were operated by means of our own plant. 

On January 30th, Capt. Southworth left us, in response to or- 
ders assigning him to the command of the Third Battalion, which 
was then stationed at Fiume. A few days later he received his pro- 



5n Ohio Doughboys in Italy 

motion to Major. This left Lieut. Craig in command of our com- 
pany. 

On February 1st we put on an amateur show in an improvised 
theatre in our barracks. Two performances were given by local 
talent. The drama was called "The Cudgel of Doom" and was writ- 
ten by Lieut. Speakman ; it was very well received. The days that 
followed we spent in drilling in the mornings and in hiking and en- 
gaging in athletics in the afternoons. As Athletic Officer of the 
Company, I organized inter-platoon basket ball teams, and developed 
both a first and second company team. We organized an inter- 
platoon league and created a good deal of competition and interest 
among the platoons with our games, two of which we played each 
afternoon. 




Private Ira J. Moll. Co. "F", 2nd Batt., 
332nd Infantry. First American soldier 
to be Wounded by Shell Fire in Italy. - 

He was wounded Oct. 2. 1918. ^ 




.MA.JOII C'OXSTAXT S( >rTl IWOKTH 



52 _ Ohio Doughboys in Italy 

American Soldiers in Tzrnagora (Montenegro) 

By Major Constant Southworth. 
Ill 



As two accounts have already appeared in this inter- 
esting series upon the curious adventures of Company "F", 
332nd Infantry, in Montenegro, thei'e w^ill be no attempt on 
my part to go over the ground already covered, but I will 
give a brief account of certain related historical events. — 
Author. 



King Nicholas' long reign in his little country of Montenegro 
had been quite progressive for a near-eastern monarch. He had 
allied himself by marriage of his numerous children to the royal 




On a mountain trail in Montenegro. 

houses of Italy, Serbia and Russia, and to the nobility of Germany. 
He had played Italy, Austria and Russia against one another, to 
the advantage of himself and his kingdom. After the second 
Balkan war he had acquired some additional territory on the 
southeast. And early in this century he granted his people a con- 
stitution. 

But during the World War the king showed some signs of 
favoring Austria, and it is said that while he was with his daugh- 
ter, the Queen of Italy, one of his sons appeared in Cettinje, the 
capital, during the Austrian occupation, and showed himself a 
strong partisan of the Austrians. Whether or not-'the king was 
at his old game of playing both sides against the middle, it is cer- 
tain that he became unpopular with his people. 



Ohio Douc/hboys in lUiIii 53 

After the Austrians had been driven out, the mass of the 
Montenegrin people, because of the fact that they are Serbian by 
race and tongue, were in favor of joining the new Serbian Jugo 
Slav State. So on November 24, 1918, (November 11, 1918, old 
style, the native reckoning) at a convention in Podgoritza this 
union was decided on and a committee of five chosen as interim 
governors of Montenegro. 

These committeemen bore the picturesque names of Steve 
Voukotich, Marko Dakovitch, Spasye Piletich, Lazar Damyano- 
vitch and Risto Yojitch. 

On the eve of this convention the Italian Commander at 
Cattaro gave to Major F. M. Scanland, who had just arrived with 
the 2nd Battalion of the 332nd Infantry, the remarkbale order to 
send one Company up the mountain to join the Italian battalion 
under Major Guadeloupe and to proceed to Cettinje "at all costs". 
This led to the first expendition into Montenegro, and the most 
exhausting night march up the majestic Lovcen, and through the 
pass of Krstac. Later on this trip, the Company was billeted two 
nights at Dubovic, in wretched native houses without chimneys 




Detachment of men of Company "F"' on Cattaro-Cettinje road 
First Montenegrin Expedition. 

and some without windows. It was with difficulty that even the 
insufficient iron rations of the Italians were procured for the men, 
and the margin was quite unsafe, in view of the distance from our 
base and of the falling snow, a serious thing in the mountains at 
that season. 

It has been already related how, when the Italian advance ha^ 
been held up, I went on to the capital with Lt. H. S. Speakman. 
and ascertained, as I had suspected, that the American detachment 
was being used as a shield for Italian penetration. Returning to 
the column I persuaded Major Guadeloupe to retire to the top of. 
the pass and await further instructions. Perhaps he consented 
the more readily as the rocks and mountains along the Cettinje 
road were swarming with irregulars all armed. They were par- 
ticularly incensed against Major Guadeloupe because, but three 



o^ OJiio Doughboys in Italy 

days before, he had promised to withdraw the Italians. It should 
be said, however, that the Major was ordered back and so had no 
choice. 

Meantime this is what had happened at battalion headquar- 
ters : The day after Company "F" had left on its perilous mission, 
Major Scanland, chancing to be on board an Italian warship in the 
harbor, learned by accident that a wireless message had been re- 
ceived the night before from the Italian General that the entrance 
into Montenegro should not be forced. Much surprised at this 




Corp. Bradley giving food to Montenegrin cliildren. 



because the orders given him had been just the contrary, Major 
Scanland sought the Italian Lieutenant Colonel at Cattaro (the 
ranking officer at the place) and asked about the dispatch. The 
Lieutenant Colonel said he had not received it. Major Scanland 
had been much worried over the mission on which we were engag- 
ed, and forthwith told the Lieutenant Colonel in English (proba- 
bly not translated) just what kind of a he was. There- 
upon the good Lieutenant Colonel scratched his head and at last 
recalled that he had received the dispatch. And yet our column 
had been allowed to proceed under orders that might easily have 
produced a collision fraught with grave international consequen- 
ces! 

Our next orders recalled the Company to Cattaro. After a 
few days at Dobrotta, we were moved to Teodo, some 18 kilometers 
by road from Cattaro. 

While, as I have said, a majority of the Montenegrins were 
in favor of the de facto government, headed by the Committee of 
five, there were many loyal supporters of the old King. And in 
the two factions the preponderance of the younger men in the de 
facto government was both marked and significant. Of the roy- 



Ohio Doughhoys in Italy 55 

alist districts, none was more pronounced than the valley of 
Njegusi through which the Cattaro-Cettinje road ran. And early 
in January, 1919, a "revolution" broke out, and the pass of Buko- 
vica was seized by the insurgents who for eight days cut off all 
through communication to the capitol, except for General Venel 
(French) now commanding in that area and the writer. But these 
trips through the lines is another story. 

On General Venel's orders. Company "F" made the second 
expedition into Montenegro as part of an inter-allied intervention. 
The story of this second trip has already been told. So I pass its 
picturesque and exciting details, as well as the curious chance that 




Montenegrin chief in native costume 
near the Pass of Bukovica. 

brought into my hands confirmation of the oft repeated charge that 
the insurgent chiefs were in direct communication with the Italian 
headquarters at Cattaro. But I can say that our efforts to check 
further bloodshed were eventually crowned with success. The 
only serious threat I made to use force was in order to protect the 
non-combatants in the valley of Njegusi from a fight with, or pil- 
lage by, the successful de facto government troops, and here again 
I was successful. 

So in due time with the country now quiet, we marched into 
Cettinje and were given a hearty reception. Here we stayed two 
weeks, quarantined in the buildings of the former German Embas- 
sy. This little capital is quite picturesque and contains some really 
modern buildings. Finally, on January 28, 1919, the Company re- 
turned to Teodo under 1st Lieut. S. A. Craig — who shortly was 
to receive a well deserved promotion and the command of the Com- 



•''»' Ohio Doughhojis in Italy 

pany we both thought so much of. I cannot praise too much the 
conduct of the officers and men of Company "F" on these expedi- 
tions, as indeed on all other occasions. But on the Montenegrin 
excursions it was due to the tact, coolness and self restraint of men 
and officers that nothing untoward occurred and that we earned 
the good will of both factions. This was a real triumph, as the 
natives are, by nature, somewhat suspicious and feeling ran high 
at that time. 

I would like to commend the men by name, especially those 
who aided so efficiently on outpost work and in negotiations, but 
to mention less than all might seem invidious. The entire com- 
pany also owes a debt to many who did less conspicuous service: 
the cooks who made the best of the issued rations, scanty even 
w^hen reinforced with supplies bought with the company fund, 
those who operated our efficient cobbler shop and tailor shop, those 
who installed the electric lighting plant at the Teodo barracks. 




Part of Montenegrin 'Army" which ixvulttd iu JaiuK,i,>. L.iiy. 

those in the mechanical and other details, those who supervised 
the company entertainments, and last but not least the mule skin- 
ners ! Nor should I omit the efficient corps of souvenir hunters ! 

A further hint that may explain some of the troubles in Mon- 
tenegro during the months I have mentioned, may be found in the 
Literary Digest of January 22, 1921. In speaking of the criticism 
in Italy of the treaty of Rapallo, whereby Montenegro was con- 
ceded by Italy to the Jugo Slavs the article adds : 

"This provision, it is reported, caused a violent scene in the 
Italian royal famihj, for Queen Helene opposed the abandonment 
of her father. King Nicholas of Montenegro," 

We may further add that the aged king died in Paris early 
this year, never having returned to his country since he fled at the 
invasion of Von Mackensen. , 

The Montenegrins are a proud and independent people, typical 
mountaineers, with customs and ways of thinking that are centu- 



Ohio Doii</]tbo)/s in Itdhi 57 

ries old. They are justly proud of their independence, for they 
alone of the Serbian race (save only the little city-state of 
Ragussa) never submitted to Turk or Austrian, though fighting 
intermittently over 400 years. The true Montenegrin loves war 
and hunting; but disdains labor, most of the latter being perform- 
ed by women. I have seen a woman kiss the hand of a man on 
greeting him, and I have seen a man leisurely guiding up the pass 
a string of women bent almost double with their loads. The tribal 
system still exists in Montenegro, with the attendant blood feuds 
of a primitive people. 

The following incident may illustrate much that has been said 
and written of this proud and picturesque race. At a critical point 
at the time of negotiations for the surrender by the insurgents of 
their "army" to us, a grizzled Montenegrin major appeared on the 
upper reaches of the Lovcen with a large detachment of the de 
facto government troops. A fight threatened and a few shots were 
fired, but at my request he obligingly held back his men until I 




Group of Montenegrin children near an American outpost. 

could arrange to send the insurgents to Cattaro ; and thus practi- 
cally ended the "revolution". This same major later welcomed our 
troops as we marched into Cettinje; and there we met often and 
he was most friendly and courteous. About that time this story 
was told me of this major. During the first of the fighting around 
Cettinje when the City was blockaded (and about the time of my 
two trips above referred to, through the opposing forms in an 
endeavor to fimd some basis on which to negotiate and of which 
others have v/ritten) there came a lull in the battle. This major 
seized the opportunity to send out a white flag and request a con- 
ference with a certain insurgent leader whom he had recognized. 
In response to the invitation the insurgent came into the major's 
lines, and was brought to his headquarters. Here the major offer- 
ed him tobacco, and while the visitor was rolling a cigarette, the 
major shot him through the head ! 

And with this little tale, we bid thee fare-well, Tzrnagora, 
Black Mountain ! 




COLO.XEL willia:\i graham everson 



Ohio DoiKjliboys in Italy 59 

niie Second Battalion 

By Bruce Macfarlane 

September 5, 1918, Major Wm. G. Everson was ordered to 
report to the Headquarters, 3rd Italian Army, for instruction, and 
to inspect a line of trenches on the Piave Front. It was decided 
that the 2nd Battalion, 332nd Infantry, be assigned a position on 
this front as a part of the "Brigata Veneto" — a Brigade com- 
posed quite largely of Italian soldiers from Venice and surround- 
ing cities. 

The Battalion, composed of Companies E, F, G and H, and 
detachments of the Supply, Machine Gun and Headquarters 
Companies, arrived at Treviso, just north of Venice, at midnight, 
September 9 — 10. The Commanding General of the 3rd Army 
inspected the troops and pronounced them ready for immediate 
service. September 13th brought a bunch of visitors, including 
Duke D'Aosta and several Generals. We store all excess equip- 
ment and will move forward in the morning. 

Pursuant to orders from Brigadier General De Maria, Com- 
manding "Brigata Veneto," we take over the town of Varago, 
about two miles back of our sector. We have made various visits 
to the Piave Sector, but now we are a part of the organization 
that will soon open fire on the Austrians. Our kitchens are 
established at Varago and this town becomes our Base. No 
soldiers could ask a more enthusiastic welcome than that ex- 
tended by the Italians. The King and Staff called. Every 
General in that section sent letters of welcome. Brigadier Gen- 
eral DeMaria wrote, "You are received as brothers by the 
soldiers of 'Brigata Veneto,' who are fighting for the same ideals 
for which you have crossed the Ocean," Major General 
DeAngelis wrote, "You will be the brothers of the winners of 
the Piave. I want to assign you the defence of the sector, where 
the first day of the battle the brave soldiers of the Veneto Bri- 
gade, with a brilliant counter-attack, crushed the waves of the 
enemy — marching to Salettuol. This sector is the vital sector 
of my Division. I want them to charge the American brothers 
with its defence, as a token of my personal appreciation," and 
Lieutenant General Paulini wrote, "The 11th Army Corps bids 
you, through me, its hearty welcome, sealing a promise worthy 
of you ; to proceed before long on the road of victory which has 
been marked by the graves of our dead heroes, and further 
beyond, till we shall have reached the confines of just liberty 
for which we have joined our efforts." 

To all these messages. Major Everson answered in behalf of 
the United States troops — the spirit of his answer is shown in this 
letter to General Paolini. "1. In behalf of the officers and 
soldiers of the 2nd Bn. 332nd Inf. U. S. A., I thank you for your 
kind message of welcome to the first lines of the 11th Army 



60 Ohio Dou(jhhoi/.s in Italy 

Corps. It thrills us with pride to be welcomed by the heroic 
victors of the Piave, and with all our hearts we thank you. 

"2. Men die, but their influence goes on forever. Out of the 
graves of the brave soldiers who have died for noble ideals will 
come the inspiration and encouragement for the march way 
beyond the lines of other days. Out of the awful sacrifice, 
suffering and death there must soon come a mighty victory — a 
lasting triumph for justice and liberty. Well may men be proud 
to live for, or, if need be, die for, the sacred rights of humanity. 

''3. The enemy never dreamed that the United States would 
send soldiers to Italy, but we are here. We are here to give our 
best, our lives if need be — not for gold nor land, but that all 
peoples may enjoy the blessings of justice and liberty. We strike 
hands with the officers and soldiers of Italy — we have become 
coml-ades and brothers. Long after the war has closed, we shall 
cherish the memories of these new friendships. 

"4. We wish to serve and sacrifice with you and to have 
some part in hastening the day of a lasting peace." 

The American Sector extended for little over a mile along 
the Piave River, with its right resting at Salettuol and including 
the main road that connected Venice. The river is very treach- 
erous and this plays a vital part in the defence of the sector, 
eliminating the necessity for a lot of entanglements. The Aus- 
trian lines are on the other side of the river — they have out- 
posts on some islands and we have our machine gun emplace- 
ments to cover and control every island. The three lines of 
trenches are arranged along the three dykes that were built to 
take care of the overflow when the mountain snow melted during 
the early Spring. Rations are supplied by the Italians and are 
much better than that furnished Italian soldiers. Our sector is 
quite a drawing card for all kinds of Generals, newspaper men, 
etc., etc. In fact, we are still in the game of propaganda and 
Italian officers and soldiers are brought here to get a little extra 
"pep." Mr. Gompers and his delegation of Labor representa- 
tives gave us the "once over" and gave us a few remarks that 
might have cost him his "block." In his enthusiasm he wanted 
to climb right out on top "and see the wheels go around." We 
blow up a lot of ammunition and the Austrians say "good morn- 
ing" and a lot of other things. We manipulate our searchlights, 
burn up a few observation balloons, etc., just to keep from 
getting homesick. Guess they think we are a wild bunch as a 
cautionary message came from the C. G. of Base 8 that we be 
very careful not to "start anything." The Austrians shower us 
with literature — such as this sample : 

"About fifteen days ago the Austrian Government made to 
the Allied Powers a fair and just peace proposal. They, as 
usual, have refused it. We want you soldiers to know that our 
people are ready to talk honorable peace conditi-^ns and any 
further denial on the part of your Governments will bring a 
full destruction of vour soil. 



Ohio Douglihoys in Italij 61 

"If we are compelled to retreat, behind us you shall find 
fire and destruction — nothing will be saved from our just revenge 
to your aim of suppression and crushing our Nation. 

"Soldiers of Italy, take our advice, lay down your arms for 
your own and your Country's interest and benefit." 

On the 15th, we are given instructions as to the part we 
were to play in the crossing of the Piave and the proposed 
advance. The remaining Battalions of the 332nd were to be 
assigned positions with Italian troops on our right and left. The 
2nd Battalion was to start the "party" and to smash through the 
lines and then to be supported by troops from our right. It 
looked like a glorious slaughter and the implication was that 
the Major was to be left behind to supervise some S. O. S. work. 
Major Everson is a preacher in civil life and was never known 
to utter an oath, but on this occasion he said: "This is the first 
time that I ever really wanted to swear," and one of the officers 
spoke up and said, "I'll do it for you — stay behind." "Like hell 
I will." Then the Italians are suddenly pulled out of the lines 
and the British come down from the mountains. We are sur- 
prised on October 15th, with orders that we are to be relieved 
and are to rejoin the Regiment as soon thereafter as possible. 

Well, we rejoin the Regiment at Treviso on the 16th, and 
find them all excited about the prospects of a "Big Drive." The 
next few days are put in with long marches — both for the hard- 
ening of our own troops and for the effect on the Italian soldiers. 
Just at this time Major Everson is promoted and assigned as 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the 332nd Infantry and Major Frank M. 
Scanland, Regimental Adjutant, is promoted and assigned to 
Second Battalion. At last the orders come and the Regiment 
moves out for Varago and we feel that we are on our way to 
New York. 

The "Sectore Americano" has suddenly become the livest 
spot on the Italian front and the little town of Salettuol is the 
crossing place for the British, Italians and Americans. We push 
on fromj October 28th, and march through the old sector and 
cross the Piave at the very spot where Lieutenant "Dug" 
Meldrum waded the river in gathering information just a few 
days before. The Austrian lines are shattered and we are over 
the river and on our way in the last crushing "drive" of the war 
so far as our end of the game is concerned. 

Colonel William Wallace is ordered to take his Regiment 
as the Advance Guard of Lord Caven's Corps, made up of two 
British Divisions, 31st Italian Division, and the 332nd Infantry. 
November 1 — 3 are days of marching and fighting and we never 
hesitate until we find ourselves the first Infantry soldiers at the 
Taglimentia River, late in the afternoon of November 3rd. We 
halt with the Second Battalion on the right, including the blown- 
up bridge. Third Battalion on the left, and the First Battalion 
in reserve. It is a wild night. 



62 Ohio Donuhhoys in Italy 

Colonel Wallace was at the end of the bridge and Major 
Scanland was ordered to take his Battalion across at 5.40 A. M. 
The Austrians were telling Captain Austin Story, who com- 
manded the Third Battalion, that an Armistice was to go into 
effect, but Story replied, "We're going to blow you up — get your 
heads down." 

During the night the boys crawled over the pieces of the 
bridge and took up a position on the Austrian side of the Tagli- 
mentia. Promptly at the time set the artillery opened up and 
the Second Battalion, with Companies E, F, G and H in reserve, 
deploy, and the Machine Gun detachments in position rise from 
the Austrian side of the river and absolutely surprise the enemy. 
Colonels Wallace and Everson were at the bridge and the enemy 
tore up trenches in that position. They ranged their pieces too 
far, thinking the Americans were on the far side of the river. 
Hence, most of the bullets went over the heads of our troops. In 
less than twenty minutes the Second Battalion smash through, 
and the Austrians break and run for their lives. 

The pursuit is organized and followed with such rapidity 
that the Austrians never attempt to establish a new position. 
Our boys push on through Codroipo, where over two million 
dollars' worth of supplies are captured, and then on to the line 
held when the Armistice went into effect at "fifteen hours, 
November 4, 1920." It was glorious to see the boys smash 
through and to hear their yells and to feel that the war was 
about over. A British aeroplane flew over and dropped a pen- 
nant to which was fastened — "Well Done." Most of the night 
was spent by the 332nd in handling the prisoners, of whom there 
were many thousands. The Austrian Generals were amazed 
when informed that there had never been but one combat Regi- 
ment of American soldiers in Italy. They reported that it was 
suspected that we had at least six Divisions. 

Major General DeAngelis, in G. O. No. 6335, expressed 
his appreciation of the 2nd Battalion in the trenches and said, 
"I am pleased to express to you my feelings of satisfaction, and 
I beg you to tribute in my name a solen'jn approval of Major 
Wm. G. Everson, Commanding Oflficer of that Battalion." The 
British Commanding General decorated Colonel William Wallace 
with the British D. S. O., and expressed his appreciation of the 
Regiment. Major Frank Scanland was decorated with a silver 
medal for his splendid service in leading his Battalion across 
the Taglimentia. Decorations were awarded to Colonel Wallace, 
Lieutenant Colonel Everson, Major Scanland, Major Burch and 
Captain Story. Several war-crosses and medals are distributed 
among the enlisted, and we all feel that it was a glorious cele- 
bration and we are really glad to be alive and able to take part 
in the festivities. 

The terms of the Armistice gave us the right to use the 
roads of Austria, and the right of requisition, and, with the 
Austrian Army on its back, there was nothing between us and 



Ohio Doiighbot/s in Itahj 



63 



Berlin. We were ordered to proceed by forced-marches to a 
point designated as "the back door of Germany." We pushed 
on through Rivolto, La Santissima, Pozzuolo, Lavaria, Buttrio, 
Orsaria, Ipplis and Carmons. Colonels Wallace and Everson 
went into the mountains as far as Tolmino. 

Then, we are halted by the news on the 11th of November 
that the Armistice had been signed with Germany. The war is 
over and we thought our travels at an end except for the home- 
ward journey. We yelled and sang and rolled on the ground 
like a bunch of school kids. But our dreams are punctured when 
orders came dividing the Regiment — Major Scanland to return 
to Venice and take Companies E, F, G and H, and detachments 
of M, G and Supply Companies to Cattaro, down in Montenegro; 
Lieutenant Colonel Everson to take Companies I, K, L and M, 
and detachments of M, G and Supply Companies to Fiume, via 
Trieste. The Regimental Headquarters and the rest of the Regi- 
ment were to return to Triveso. 

We are not assembled again until March 9th, when Colonel 
Everson brought the last detachment of troops from Cattaro. 
The Regiment is back under direct command of Colonel Wallace 
and nicely located in Genoa, waiting sailing orders for New 
York, U. S. A. 

The experiences of the detachments in Fiume and Cattaro 
are full of interest because of the complications arising out of 
the political situation along the Adriatic. 




().^ Ohio Douglihoys in Italy 



A SUMMARY 

By COLONEL WILLL4M WALLACE 

This article was taken from a copy of Colonel Wallace's Report 
sent to Major General Glenn. Though an official document it is a 
thoroughly human treatise on mighty interesting experiences. 

The service of the 332nd Regiment of Infantry in Italy can be 
divided into four periods: first, from our arrival to the commence- 
ment of the Italian Offensive against the Austrians (from July 
28th to October 27th, 1918) ; second, from the latter date to wide 
dispersion of the Battalions on November 12th, 7th and 25th respec- 
tively ; third, when the Battalions were operating alone in occupied 
territory and beyond any direct influence of Regimental Headquar- 
ters ; fourth, from the final assembly beginning February 15th. 

Our first marches were more in the nature of triumphal pro- 
cessions than of stern military operations. In every city — shouting 
crowds, bands, banners, flowers, speeches and parades. Highly en- 
joyable. I ?dmit, but more becoming the end of a victorious cam- 
paign than the commencement of one by a concourse of raw re- 
cruits. Militarily, it was not a good start. On arrival the regi- 
ment was billeted in three good sized towns with the Machine Gun 
at a smaller one and all considerably apart. The officers drew ex- 
ceedingly comfortable quarters in fine villas, my own being palatial, 
while the men were widely dispersed throughout the towns in quar- 
ters that, though comfortable, contrasted greatly. 

In addition, the Italian civil and military authorities and British 
and French Commanders showered us with invitations which could 
not be refused without causing offense. These took valuable time. 
Drill areas were few and remote. Supervision and inspections, even 
of Battalions quartered in a town, were difficult. The consequence 
was that schedules were not fully carried out and the absent list ran 
high. Training was essential and the men were not getting it, so 
after about two weeks, on August 14th, I placed the whole Regiment 
under canvas at Valleggio. The move was rather unpopular with 
many of the officers and men, and was beyond the comprehension of 
the Italians who had done so much for our comfort and entertain- 
ment. 

At Valleggio we made up for lost time. The training area was 
ideal. An amphitheatre, two miles in circumference, for open war- 
fare work ; a section of finely constructed trenches for trench train- 
ing. I secured a Battalion of Arditti — Italy's best shock troops — 
who had 28 engagements to their credit. On duty they always 
double timed and had a major who did the same. Under their in- 
stroiction, the Battalions were put through every kind of trench and 
open warfare problems. Each Battalion actually lived in and op- 
erated the trenches for three day periods ; while another maneu- 
vered against and raided it day and night. 

The open warfare problems were all carried through with ball 



Ohio Bouglihoys in Italy 6'5 

ammunition and employed one-pounders, trench mortars, field artil- 
lery (Italian) and machine guns; all used against targeted posi- 
tions. The Machine Gun Company of 32 guns went to the big Ital- 
ian School for two weeks course of practical instruction. Every 
man had a thorough course of range practice. All officers were 
sent for a week's visit to the front line to actually see how opera- 
tions were conducted in the presence of the enemy. I believe no 
regiment had a more ideal course of training. Men and officers 
generally responded well to the hard work required to carry it on. 

I was concerned about securing a sector of trenches so as to be 
in place when the offensive began. Visited every part of the line 
and the Piave District looked best to me; so I went personally to 
the Duke of Aosta and obtained an important section on his line; 
and immediately sent Col. Everson's Battalion to hold it before the 
Duke could change his mind. This assured the regiment a place in 
the action when it should take place. The remainder of the Regi- 
ment continued training at Valleggio until October 3rd, when the 
entire regiment assembled at Treviso, a large town ten miles in the 
rear of our sector. Three fine cavalry barracks were turned over 
to us. Every man in the regiment was brought up to good marching 
condition by being required to make marches in complete mobile 
equipment. Little else could be done owing to terrific congestion 
of troops and supplies. Every man was required to take these 
marches. Before the offensive was over the necessity for this 
toughening process was plainly in evidence. 

The offensive began October 28. For the first week after ar- 
rival some confusion existed in the issuing of rations owing to the 
quality and number of articles required to satisfy an American. No 
army the world had ever known called for such subsistence. The 
tables of Royalty and Highest Commanders in Italy were not so 
furnished. Nevertheless, after the first few days we were obtain- 
ing nearly everything we desired — and where the Italians got some 
of the articles has always been a mystery to me. 

On one occasion near the end of the training it was proposed 
by the officers and men that a minstrel and boxing show be given 
in which we might all return our numerous social obligations. Dur- 
ing the stay at Valleggio, I had reduced social functions to the min- 
imum. Nevertheless, some invitations had to be accepted. The 
officers had been entertained at messes when they visited the 
trenches and by commanders on their way to them. The British 
non-commissioned officers entertained ours at their mess at Lake 
Garda and all were indebted to the Arditti, who had had entertain- 
ments for them. It was expedient to have the matter over with at 
once rather than spread over a considerable period of time, and be- 
sides it meant a really creditable affair. I approved of it. The of- 
ficers had their guests one night and the men two nights later. 
Five hundred officers came on officers' night, and several thousand 
doughboys on the men's. The entertainments were a success. 

The second period of the Regiment's activities was partly 
taken in the Italian offensive against the Austrians. We received 
orders at 9.40 P. M., Oct. 28th, 1918, and at 10.30 P. M. were march- 



66 



Ohio Doughhoiis in Italy 




*>f ,! ^ 










1. Dead Soldier Caught on Barbed "Wire Entanglements. 

2. Snipci-s and Scouts, N. C. O.'s. 3. Offlcers of the 332d. 

4. Stietclier Bearers Cai-rying AVoimded Italian Soldiers. 



Ohio DoiighJto]/s in Itulij 67 

ing toward the front. During the night of October 27th and the en- 
tire day following, a heavy engagement along the whole line was 
taking place. The 10th British Army of which we were a part, 
though belonging to an Italian Division, was forcing the Piave im- 
mediately in our front not 10 miles away. At 2.30 A. M., Oct. 29th, 
we were halted at Varago, 3 miles from the front. All bridges over 
the Piave had been destroyed by enemy fire and it was not until 
9.00 A. M., Oct. 31st, that crossing became possible and we could 
proceed. From then a run of all troops was necessary to overtake 
the fleeing enemy. His rapid withdrawal was a surprise to the 
Allied Commanders, who, I know, expected him to undertake rear- 
guard action at the four big rivers he had to cross. Instead, he 
"beat it" swiftly, only pausing to blow up every bridge and so de- 
lay our advance. This regiment was the advance guard of the 
Division and covered with its scouting parties a front of nearly 
four miles. At the Tagliamento on Nov. 3rd, we found the Aus- 
trians in position on the other side and during the night the 2nd 
Battalion (Scanland's) crossed the river on a single plank foot 
bridge, deployed and at 5.20 A. M. attacked, taking the enemy posi- 
tion with the loss of only one killed and six wounded. It was mir- 
aculous and had the Austrian machine guns reduced their range 
but 100 yards the toll would have been very heavy. Then came the 
surrender. Some Austrian high commanders wanted the Ameri- 
cans to take charge of them. I couldn't do it. Didn't have enough 
men to guard a tenth of their army and was scratching for food 
for the regiment. In fact, we were practicaly out of it and it was 
not until late in the day, Nov. 4th, that our supply since beginning 
the march caught up with us, and this was only a meager two day 
supply of "iron" rations. When I told the Austrians there was only 
one regiment of Americans on the Italian Front, they would not be- 
lieve me. They "knew" there were at least 300,000 of them. I 
realized the propaganda had been good, but I never flattered myself 
it had been anything like that. From the 5th on, began a rearward 
movement into Italy of Austrians, 60,000 or 70,000 filed down our 
lines of communication alone; thousands, too, of Italian prisoners 
liberated by the Austrians. The regiment stayed at the Taglia- 
mento during the 5th and on the 6th began, by hard marches, to 
reach the line laid down in the armistice terms that might be occu- 
pied as Italy's frontier if it could be reached by the 16th. That 
these marches were hard, it is needless to say. The congestion of 
troops alone was terrific, the roads were very bad, the bridges all 
destroyed, and every step was taking us away from our supplies. 
The British on two occasions, I understand, were feeding their ad- 
vanced troops by air-ship-transport and the Cavalry were nearly 
three days without food or forage and riding hard day and night. 
At Ipplis, on the 8th, vs^e had to stop for four days to rest and get 
up rations. We were bound for Tolmino, far up into Austrian ter- 
ritory. I went there. The country at Ipplis and beyond was infest- 
ed with a plague of the "Flu". The people were dying so fast, the 
well didn't have time to bury them. On the 12th, Scanland's Bat- 
talion (2nd) was ordered to Cattaro, Montenegro, returning to em- 



GS 



Ohio DoiKjlihoijs in Italy 




Sgt. Converse. Lt. Botagele ancfLt. Davidson 

Machine Gunfire Station at Piave. 
Private Hille of Ironton. Capt. Magnus, Our Adjutant 



OJiio Doughbojjs in Italy 69 

bark at Venice. The rest of regiment advanced to Cormans. The 
epidemic still continued. On the 18th the 3rd Battalion was sent 
to Fiume, Dalmatia, under Lt, Col. Everson, On the 24th, the 1st 
Battalion, Headquarters, Machine Gun and Supply Companies re- 
turned to Treviso, which they reached after hard marching on 
November 28th, the BattaHon going into fine quarters at Dosson, 4 
miles out. 

We began the advance with two days iron rations on person, 
two days on rolling kitchens and an additional supply of various 
kinds of food, that if properly used, would have assured us a five 
days' supply. This was maintained to the date of crossing the 
Piave. I had been assured by the Division Commander that 20 light 
trucks (cameons) would be allotted to the regiment from a Divi- 
sion Supply Train. The day after setting out, I was informed that 
it would be impossible to let me have them and that I must depend 
entirely on the Division for transport as well as supplies. The 
British commander secured 30 mule drawn carts at Mira — 30 miles 
to the rear — for me ; and these had to be sent for, loaded at Tre- 
viso, and catch up. But, as said, nobody expected the phenomenal 
pursuit that took place. All transport was completely outrun. 
Trucks, kitchens, even our horses, had to be abandoned at the first 
big river and we didn't see them again until the day after reaching 
the Tagliamento when 12 of the 30 carts managed to get up, the 
animals of the others having died on the way. During the advance, 
the British again helped out, sending the regiment about a day's 
supply of bully beef and hard tack. After crossing the Tagliamento, 
our own transport was ample, but the congestion of traffic was be- 
yond description. It was 4 days before the Division Depot got into 
a day's striking distance. Moreover, when at the beginning of the 
drive the line to be supplied by the Italians was comparatively 
short, and connected with closeby depots by good roads, the end of 
the advance saw the line to be supplied extended five times and 
connected with depots far to rear by almost impassable roads that 
were barred by broken bridges. The Italian S. 0. S. at this period 
must have been sweating blood and that there was not a complete 
breakdown in supply is one of the most creditable things of the 
whole war. Enough to live on did get up; — it was not Charlotte 
russe and champagne, but it was bread and meat. 

The Battalion (2nd) which was ordered to Cattaro. Monten- 
egro, has had the most difficult time. It was 1000 miles from Tre- 
viso to Cattaro, by rail to Brindisi and boat across the Adriatic. It 
had been ordered directly from the advance to Maestre (land port 
of Venice) to embark. 

On September 10th, with a little over twelve hundred men, I 
reached Treviso where we received four days' special instruction. 
We were then ordered to Varago, a small town about two miles 
back of the sector of trenches we were to take over. We were wel- 
comed by the Italian soldiers and with special letters from Lt. Gen- 
eral Paolini, Major General De Angleis and Brig. General DeMaria 
who commanded the Venato Brigade — to which we were assigned. 



70 GJ;i<) DoiighJjoijs in Italy 

The Anjerican Sector covered a mile front, the right of which rested 
on the main road at Salettuol. We were visited by Generals and 
distinguished men of England, France, Italy and America — even 
his Honor, the King of Italy visited us twice — all spoke in the high- 
est of praise because of the splendid condition of our troops and the 
boundless enthusiasm of our officers. Everything possible was done 
for us — in fact, I feel that we all had "the time of our lives". 

When we were ordered to join the Regiment in preparation for 
the "Last Drive", the Italian General wrote a letter of commenda- 
tion and said that the association with the American officers and 
soldiers was one of the rare pleasures of his life — and that he spoke 
for all the Italian officers. On New Year's Day, 1919, General De- 
Maria, who commanded the Veneto Brigade, wrote, "In memory of 
our happy days together on the Piave, we send best wishes for a 
Happy New Year." 

We had reached Cormons after the "Great Drive". On Nov. 
18, 1918, I was ordered with the Third Battalion to Fiume where 
we became a part of the troops of occupation. Here we came in 
close contact with the Italian, French, British and Serbian forces — 
both military and naval. Our troop-train was the first train to g^ 
through since the signing of the armistice — both cars and service 
were poor on account of damage done by the retreating Austrians, 
During the drive our clothing was badly worn and in some cases 
torn, but it was impossible to wait for new supplies. We took what 
"iron rations" we could get and struck out for an eighteen hour ride 
into Austria and along the Adriatic to Fiume. The officers were 
billeted on the Ference Ferdinand — a very fine Austrian ship, and 
the men had two large schools — heated, well lighted and ventilated. 

When we left Fiume, letters of commendation were sent by 
the following — 

Lt. General Grazioli for the Italians. 

Lt. General Tranie for the French. 

Brig. General Gordon for the British. 

Farewell banquets were given by the Italians and the British. 
The various Political Organizations sent committees to express 
their admiration and appreciation of the American contingent in 
Fiume. The Spanish Consul told me that he had never seen a bet- 
ter behaved bunch of soldiers. The entire town turned out on the 
day we left. There were delegations from the Italians, French, 
British and Serbian troops and sailors. There were three bands 
and delegations from every large Civic organization in Fiume. The 
Italian, French and British Generals and Admirals stayed in the 
crowd at the station for nearly two hours. 

Renort of 1st Battalion activities during the period from Nov. 
24, 1918, to Feb. 13, 1919:— 

November 24, to November 28, 1918. 

The Battalion was detached from the Regiment and marched 
from Langoris near Cormons to Treviso, Nov. 24th. The march 
of approximately 80 miles was done in a period of, 5 days, in 4 
stages, the men being billeted each night in comfortable quarters. 
The Battalion was accompanied by Rolling Kitchens and hot meals 



Ohio Douf/Jihoifs in Itnlii 



71 




Officers of the Second Battalion. 



were served throughout the hike. The Battahon arrived in Treviso 
on Nov. 28th. The country passed through north of the Piave was 
infested with influenza and by contact many cases developed in the 
Battahon. The Battahon was accompanied by ambulances which 
carried the men who took sick enroute ahead to the Field Hospital 
at Treviso. 

November 28, to February 13, 1919. 

The Battalion with detachments from Machine Gun Co. and 
Hqrs. Co. took billets at Dosson near Treviso in a large 3 story fac- 
tory building which was being used as a military barracks. In an 
out-building there were hot water shower baths to accommodate 
50 men at one time. Field ranges were set up and Rolling Kitchens 
turned in and portable wooden houses erected to furnish shelter 
for the kitchens and rations. The winter was exceptionally mild. 
Close order drill was held for 2 hours daily on drill fields about 1/2 
hour's march from the barracks. In bad weather 2 hour hikes 
were taken. The intention was to maintain discipline and keep 
the Battalion in good physical condition. The drill was supple- 
mented by an athletic program consisting of volley bail, indoor 
baseball, football, soccer and group games under a Battalion athletic 
ofl^cer with the idea that every man in the Battalion was engaged 
in some form of athletics. Equipment was furnished by Y. M. C. 
A. A Battalion soccer team contended with all the British teams 
stationed in Treviso making a creditable showing, affecting good 



7,,^ Ohio l)(ju(jhh()}is in Italy 

sport and adding to the extremely cordial relations between the 
British and American soldiers in Italy. The indoor baseball league 
included a team from each platoon, six games being played daily. 
I consider that the athletics were very successful and beneficial. 

The Battalion had the benefit of the Y. M. C. A. schools at 
Doson in the following subjects: History, bookkeeping, geography, 
mathematics, salesmanship and law. These courses were optional 
and successful. The Y. M. C. A. took over and operated an opera 
house at Treviso using all available talent including a Battalion 
minstrel. Shows were had on an average of 3 times a week. 

On February 13th, the Battalion entrained for Genoa to join 
the Kegiment. 





Famous Collonade Approach to St. Peter's Cathedral. Rome 




I' 




LIEUT. CARL H. TRIK, 3d. 



74 Ohio DoiKjhhoy.s in Italy 

REMINISCENCES 

By Cakl H. Tiuk, 3Rn. 
I 

When a rank amateur penman enjoys the distinction of 
being sought after, when his "writings" are solicited in the 
politely insistent way of an old maid after a particularly choice 
autograph, and when finally he is assured that the publication 
of his stuff is to be assumed by others, and the only thing to 
worry him is to get his scribblings out on time, then may one 
observe a true case of Ego Superba. 

That, would you believe it, is just what has happened to 
me. The publisher (here and after to be known at all times as 
"My publisher") quite recently a perfect stranger, but now a 
life-long friend, has laid before me the temptation to draw upon 
my imagination in supplying him with reminiscences. Since the 
stuff will undoubtedly be read by former buddies, I feel con- 
strained to stick to the truth, as nearly as within my power. 
This is going to be diffleult, I fear, because I have so many choice 
memories picked up here and there, from various sources; and 
have repeated them so many times, that I find it quite confusing 
to pick the wheat from the chaff; since, after two and a half 
years, I firmly believe they all happened to me. I am not alone 
there, however, for I heard a chap the other day telling a war 
experience of his that positively happened to me and the cir- 
cumstances were too peculiar for it to be a coincidence. So there 
you are. 

In the Army, as is well known, the company clerk was 
usually a pretty fair wheelwright, and a company mechanic 
earned his civilian jack on a stool posting Aa — to I-J. There- 
fore, I was made Regimental Intelligence Officer. 

I was ordered to report to the Duke of A'Osta, Commanding 
General of the Third Italian Army. I had to take with me three 
battalion scout officers, Lieutenants Davidson, Nearn and 
Childers. Our journey from Verona, near which city the outfit 
was encamped, took us through Padua. The Italian moon was 
living up to its reputation and we were sure that the Hun would 
raid the city that night. Lieutenant Childers, a Second Battalion 
Scout Officer, was an old timer. He had been sent to us from 
France, where he had been a sniper Sergeant. He assured us 
he was used to raids — and all that. We were glad to have him 
with us. We felt that we needed his experience. That night, as 
predicted, the Hun came over dropping eggs with a great to-do. 
We rushed up to Childers' room and found him absent. The 
bed had been slept in, but apparently not for long. Childers was 
elsewhere. The next day towards evening Lieutenant Childers 
ventured the hope that the Austrians would return that night. 

"How come?" we asked him. 



Ohio Doughhoiis in Italy 15 

"Oh, kinda like the excitement," but he seemed evasive. 

"Well, aren't you sort of impatient?" 

"No, I just like the noise, I guess." 

"You like the noise? Say, Buddie, where did you get what 
you got?" 

"Oh, that! I only had a wee little one, but I'll tell you 
birds, only I hate to share a good thing like this. You see last 
night I went down into a Refugio during the raid and I found 
pretty nearly every Italian woman within a rrtile jammed in 
there, I think some of them stopped to put on slippers, but I 
can't vouch for it. It was verv, very dark. Tonip-ht I am going 
to sort o' hang around the entrance so I'll be sure of getting in, 
for there's no use in taking foolish chances." 

Then he got belligerent and bawled, "Now don't you birds 
come hanging around my dugout, get one of your own. There 
just ain't room for all Padua in there." 

We had one picked out, but they didn't come again. 

In a pretentious Venetian villa, in the quiet little town of 
Mogliano, was housed the Comando Supremo of the Third Ital- 
ian Army. This was the army chosen to guard the treasure of 
Italy, the Domicile of Romance and Intrigue — Venice. His High- 
ness, the Duca cl'A'Osta was in command of this flower of Italy's 
armies. By virtue of his station, first Cousin to the King, and 
his excellent generalship, the Duke made good. We four 
American officers blew in there as per instructions and according 
to Italian custom, before we could take up our duties, had to be 
presented to His Highness. We were drilled by a conscientious 
Colonel at Headquarters to be sure to say when we were in the 
august presence. Yes, your Highness, this, and No, your High- 
ness, that. They impressed upon us the awful consequences 
likely to happen if we gummed the sacred interview with any 
low American slang or custom, such as saluting with one's hat 
off, or looking at the soup-spot on Royalty's tunic (not that this 
is an American custom). We were finally ushered into his 
luxurious office and beheld a tall man of about sixty-four who 
smiled very kindly and was most congenial. We saluted when 
we were presented, and darned if we could say anything but 
"Yes, Sir, this" and "No, Sir, that," and I believe to this day the 
Colonel who presented us thinks that we rubbed it in as we 
saluted, as we left, because we wore no hats and the Italians 
do not do this. They took that staff officer to the hospital that 
night. He had Italian Rabies or something. 

Lieutenant Davidson, the First Battalion Scout Officer, had 
the honor of capturing the first prisoner ever taken by American 
troops on Italian soil. He was crawling around in the muck of 
the Levenza River to get soundings for a pontoon bridge. With 
his work finished he was on his way back through the heavy 
undergrowth when he said he smelled something funny. He 
turned the man over to the Italians for dry cleaning. 





fe 





Ohio Doughboys in Itdly 77 

During the big push, on the Porclonne Road, which runs 
straight as an arrow across the Venetian plains, I saw what was 
to me the most pathetic incident of the war. A direct hit had 
laid low six horses of a British heavy. One was on its side and 
in the ditch. Down there in the muck and slime, up to her knees, 
was a youngster of twelve or thirteen, carving steaks from the 
carcass and throwing them up to her mother, an old hag of 40. 
This sounds grisly now, but at that time I venture to say that 
these peasants thought they were in fine luck. 

The war, as is well known, finally ended, but the troubles 
of the 332nd only began. The brave and famous Second Battal- 
ion was shunted to Dalmatia, there to rot in peace, sans leave, 
sans underwear, sans everything, but a life-sized grouch, and a 
pretty little mixture called the "American Seestem." In a 
moment of inspiration the town baker got out his Rum, Strega, 
Benedictine, Marsala and Cognac. He mixed them all together 
and hung out a shingle "Dreenks." The first meeting was the 
worst. It was a very economic beverage. One only needed two 
tastes and a whiff of the cork, and one called it a day. I met up 
with it when the old belt was rather loose. I only had one taste 
and no whiffs, yet that was the day I saw the famous Dalmation 
Wzychowskii — a very rare animal. It has heavy eye-brows, two 
heads, eight legs and never had any tail to speak of. It is ambi- 
dexterous in that it runs first on one set of legs and then on 
the other. They say down there in Cattaro that if it ever pursues 
you the stuff is off. This thing did start after me, but luckily 
it saw Major Scanlon commanding the Battalion, and swerved. 

I have amibled along considerably as I knew I would even 
when My Publisher said, "We only want about 300 or 400 
words," Nice of him, to be sure, but I have that many thousand 
to say about some things. Congressional Investigations for in- 
stance, or perhaps hiking twenty-five kilos on a canteen of water, 
or Supply Captains, or C. C. pills, or voices that bawl like a bull 
on "Squads Left," or Asti Spumanti, or Wilson in Rome, or Italian 
Bed-Bugs, or Dolce far nienti, or omelettes fried in olive oil. 

But there ! — The whole thing was a dream, spotty here and 
there it's true, though I am sure that with the mellowing hand of 
time lightly brushing these spots they will gradually fade and in 
eighty or ninety years we should have a right rosy picture of the 
big fuss. 

II 

In these ramblings through memory I shall not attempt to 
weave them into a continuous tale, I shall jot them down as 
they come to me (or in the event of the failure of memory — as 
they are born). 

With the passing of Wilson and all his glory, one's memory 
quite naturally harks back to the time when he was at the apex 
of his popularity (that is, his European popularity). 



7S Ohio DoiKjlihoj/s in Italy 

It was, if you remember, immediately after his Italian tour, 
that his sun began to set, ever so slowly, Ibut begin it did, and at 
that time. 

I w^as fortunate enough to have been ordered to Rome with 
the guard of honor that was detailed to meet him at the railroad 
station upon his arrival at the Eternal City. 

We reported at Rome, New Year's Day of 1919, in all the 
pomp and circumstance of men fresh from lousy billets and a 
twenty-four-hour ride on the Italian speed demon which leaves 
Paris one day and promises to get you in Rome the next day, but, 
like many earthly promises, means a month. 

We were well fed on the usual travel rations of iron, and 
couldn't have considered eating a beefsteak under any circum- 
stances. The steak would have been too great. 

I took the men in my charge to the Red Cross house where 
they slept on matresses with honest-to-goodness sheets and pillow 
cases. 

The first time in months those happy roughnecks had even 
seen linen. 

One strapping six-footer sat on the edge of the mattress and 
peeled off his socks. Before he finally turned in he daintily lifter 
the covers with due attention to the little finger which, as every- 
one knows, should always be nicely curved. He heaved a pro- 
found sigh as though ashamed to disturb the snowy whiteness, 
and turning suddenly to his neighbor, said with tremendous 
threat in his voice : 

"Now, Edgar, don't you go making a mistake and try to 
kiss me good morning." 

Edgar looked up from a knotty shoelace. "No, ma'am! I 
mean, no, sir," was all he said. 

The next day Wilson came. I shall omit any description of that 
justly famous occasion other than to say it was very Italian, Avhich is to 
say very showy, very ceremonious, full of color and fanfare, and quite 
the biggest thing that had happened in Rome since Nero played his 
record-breaking "One-two-three, one-two-three." I mean that's the way 
the Romans acted. 

His Royal Highness gave His Excellency a big reception followed 
by an awfully good dinner. Mr. Wilson was boarding at the Quirinal 
while in the Eternal City. ]\Irs. Wilson and Margaret were with him. 
George Creel and Admiral Grayson were around somewhere. I think 
they stopped in the Annex. 

Ambassador Page gave a luncheon to the King at his residence, in 
the name of Wilson, I suppose. I do not understand diplomatic etiquette. 
(I never could figure out whether a Duke beats an Earl, or a Baron tops 
a Count, or a jMarquise a Duchess. And that counts in diplomatic 
circles ; for if you, for instance, are a Duke and I only a Knight — you get 
into the dining room first and thus get nearest the chicken, while I am 
forced to the end of the line : and if there are manv Dukes ahead of me 



Ohio Doughhoys in Ifuly 



75 



I 'm out of luck entirely, for I not only get a place 'way down the board, 
but haven't even a good chance for any seconds.) 

This luncheon which ^Mr. Page gave Mr. V. Emmanuel was to be 
quite a doggy affair, if you know what I mean. Printed invitations, 
Ilowers on the table, carpet on the steps, and all that. Very swank! 
Very exclusive, and quite the function of the season. I do not know 
what the Ambassador did for music at similar functions in the past — 
but at this one he had a forty-eight-piece band furnished bv the bando- 
liers of the 332d A. E. F. in Italy. 

And I want to say right here there isn't, or never will be, another 
band can touch that old Avindjamming bunch of privates of the 3S2d. 

They Avent around to Numero Tre Dieci Via Vengte Septembre. 
which is by way of saying, Mr. Page's house, at eleven in the morning 
and tootled and blew and thumped until four in the afternoon. They 
had had no breakfast nor any lunch, and as the time dragged on and 
the King ate and ate and ate. it looked as though they'd be out of luck 
for dinner. 




"Good-bye, buddy." 

But finally it was over. The men played the last salute and began 
packing their instruments. 

Mrs. Page, wife of the former Ambassador, is a dear motherly lady. 
She it was who suggested the most novel and yet welcome idea of the 
entire trip to date. It was nothing more than that the "poor hungry 
boys be brought up and fed. ' ' 

You should understand that the men had been playing in the court- 
yard around which the house was built as of a square. The banquet hall 
of the house was on the third floor. Leading up to this floor were broad 
beautiful steps of marble, down the center of which ran the conventional 
strip of red carpet. On each landing stood a motionless American sentry, 
steel hatted and bayonet fixed, shined, shaved and shampooed to within 



80 Ohio Doughboys in Italy 

an inch of his life. Goes the party, then; up these steps trooped the 
band and I'elaxed sentries. 

They were met by ^Irs. Page who led the hungry mob into the 
dining hall recently vacated by the King of Italy and his wife, the 
Queen, Mr. Wilson and family, and all the smaller fry in the form of 
ambassadors and commanding generals. 

At that luncheon were, besides the aforementioned, General Diaz, 
Commander-in-Chief of all the Italian Armies; the Duca d'Abruzzi. 
commanding all the Italian navies, a cousin to the King and brother of 
Aosta (he's the chap who tried to marry a Philadelphia girl but who 
was shown the nearest exit) ; the ]\Iayor of Rome and others I have for- 
gotten. There were only sixty-three. Well, sir, do you know those boys 
filed (I should say ran, for Mrs. Page hacl disappeared and left them in 
charge of a major-domo) around that table and together with the sentries 
and color-guard filled every chair there. And the chairs still warm from 
the other distinguished — ah — guests ! I am stating the truth when I say 
that I really believe the Pages had to dine out that night, because that 
crowd not only ate the remains of the Royal luncheon, consisting of 
patc-dc-foic grus, quail, s(iuab, artichoke, salads, blanc manges and so on. 
but clamored for stuff a he-man could live on, and the obliging major 
domo brought in roast beef, steak and a few potatoes. It was then six 
o'clock and too late to do any marketing. 

The rei)artee was good during that second meal. One buck took 
the part of the King and another played the Queen. There was a Mr. 
Wilson and a General Diaz. One lad possessed of a voice played he was 
Margaret Wilson and elected to sing "How Dry I Am," with a mouth 
full of Italian spinach. The chief protest came from the "Queen" sit- 
ting opposite him. 

I've often wondered whether ]Mrs. Page had her silver checked, for 
we were souvenir crazy in those days. 

I mentioned in a foregoing paragraph the Mayor of Rome. An 
amusing incident in connection with the luncheon came up in the court- 
yard beloAV. 

The house, as I said, was built around a square. The ears entered 
at one gate, stopped, discharged their occupants and left by another 
gate. We had guards at lioth gates and a snapp}' buck to open and close 
the doors of the cars as they swung around and stopped at the entrance. 

The guards at the gates had absolute orders to let no one in not 
possessed of an invitation and under no circumstances were they sup- 
posed to permit any one to enter after the King had arrived, who, of 
course, came last (but who w^nt into the dining hall first). I believe 
that is how the saying originated anent "The last shall be first," although 
our former Lieutenant-Colonel who worked for a church in civilian life 
and, we hoi)e, still does — might take exceptions to that ; but then one is 
always getting j\lr. Shakespeare, and the Bible and "Poor Richard" all 
balled up — isn't one? The truth is the truth, regardless of whether it 
comes from the mouths of babes or the ponderous dome of a Latter Day 
Saint. "What boots it" if "people w^lio live in glass hous'^s" and so on. 
are found among the begats or among the un])ulilished papers of Elbert 
Hubbard, or, like Topsy, "just grow^d." It's a very pat bromide and 



Ohio Doughboys in Italy 



81 



handy to have about if you care to take the risk of using it. All this 
wandering away from the point is indicative of many things, but chiefly 
shows up the amateur adventurer into the realm of scribble. So, to get 
back — 

After the jolly old King had entered the blooming courtyard, step- 
pin' high and wdde out of the motor indicating the merry old soul was 
feelin' tojvhole, with his consort smiling as though she felt top-hole-er, 
there fell a silence upon the men, broken only by a "tweet -tweet" from 
some piccolo artist lightly running the scale, or a deep "phrumph" from 
the bass horn, as of a German corporal in his cups. 

Suddenly from the entrance gate rang out the sharp command 
' ' Halt ! ' ' and the clash of bayonets as the two guards crossed their pieces 

"Ah, Dio! Dio! Dio! Madonna! Ma nome! Prego! Americani, 
Prego ! Prego ! ' ' 

"Who the hell is this guy?" I heard a sergeant ask. 




The Last Grouche — "Is this all I get? 



"Yah, some dead-head," said the other and addressing himself to 
the unknown. 

' ' Gwan ! Seat ! Via ! Allez ! Yer in wrong, buddie ! Sei partira 
subito ! Get me ? " 

The other got him indeed ! His only answer was more talk, more 
moans, more "Dio's," more hand wringing. 

By this time I was at the gate. The picture I saw w^as very interest- 
ing. I looked down the Via Vengte Septembre lined on both sides with 
the crack regiments of Italy's cavalry in full dress of burnished 
cuirasses, crested shining helmets, drawn sabres, skin tight breeches, 
elbow length gauntlets, black horses motionless. Behind the Cavalry, 
in double ranks, stood the Infantry as far as the eye could see. And 
pushing, shoving, yelling, hat-throwing, banner- and flag-waving was 
the Roman populace doing homage to the famous "Weelson." 



82 Ohio DoiKjhboijs in Italy 

Iminodiately in front of nie stood the American .sentries on the 
American soil of our Ambasador's house. They had dropped their pose 
of crossed pieces and were now earnestly engaged in shoving with firm 
and gun butts this upstart who sought to enter minus his ticket, on foot, 
and ye gods of Custom, hear! After the Royal Presence had arrived, 
above the babel of the people, one could hear the praying of the fat 
person dressed in frock coat and shining top hat — slung about with the 
red sash of officialdom and weai-ing enough hardware around his neck 
to build a Henry. 

In the midst of this scene much to the disgust of the sergeants on 
guard, who, needless to say, were enjoying themselves hugely, came an- 
other fat man. This one came from the house. He was awe-inspiring, 
moving magestically on plump i)iano legs encased in blue silken knee 
breeches, white silk stockings, black square-toe shoes with huge silver 
buckles. He sported a scarlet coat of many buttons, trimmed with 
whirly-gigs and gew-gaws. On his head rested one of those hats an 
admiral wears, only he wore his from port to starboard instead of from 
bow to stern — if you know what I mean. It looked like the hat Na- 
poleon wore when he posed for that picture where his standing with his 
foot forward as though he's just missed the rail by an inch, and his 
right hand about to unbutton the front of his coat to pay the check. 

Beside all this costume this fat. imposing personage carried a staff 
as tall as himself — like an over-grown Bo-Peep. 

Turning to us, he addressed us in English, ''Gentlemen, there is a 
mistake! This man who desires the entrance in. is none other than his 
Excellency, the Mayor of Roma. It is too terrible. He mus' be admit." 
"T' hell he mus'." The men had found their breath you see. "Si! Si! 
Si! T' hell he mus'! Yes! His conveyance have the mishap — it have 
the trouble inside, I, Giuseppi Pasquale Antonio DeMore Rigotti, tell 
you let him in." 

"Who then," I asked, "are you?" 

"If I? I? I? You ask me who I am? You have not know me? 
Die!" He addressed the sky, finger tips on chest, forgetting for the 
moment the Mayor of the City of Seven Hills, in this more important 
business of establishing his profound importance in the world. "I 
inform you, sir ! I tell you at once ! I, Giuseppi Pasquale Antonio 
DeMore Rigotti who stands before you, am the Master of the House of 
Page, Ecco! My word is the law." 

"Oh," said a gaping sergeant, "you're the janitor, aintcha?" 
"Janitor? I do not know this janitor," he puft'ed, "but this do I 
know. The Mayor shall enter." Here he brushed aside the men, with a 
wave of his lacy hand bid the perspiring and weeping ]Mayor to enter. 
I let the ]\Iayor come, for the brilliant one evidently had some authority, 
or he wouldn't have put on that trick suit. It meant something, ap- 
parentl3^ 

I have often wondered whether the INIayor was socially ostracized 
for his awful faux pas or whether it endeared him to the Italian people, 
who were highly tickled by the Avhole incident, to such an extent that 
society had to retain him in their good graces because of his growing 



Ohio Doughboys in Italy 83 

popularity. And truly to such tiny things may one trace the rise of 
many great men. 

You see, memory has taken me to Rome this time, and as it is hard 
to break away from that beautiful, mysterious city, even in thought I 
shall remain there to the end of this narrative. 

I was stationed for weeks in the City of Brindisi. in the Province of 
Toranto- My duties are beside the point — my recreation very much to 
it. Rome was an eight-hour ride away. 

I drew money for my men from an exceedingly disagreeable, un- 
pleasant person stationed in Rome. Suffice to say he was a Captain of 
the G. M., had come over after the Armistice, and was suffering from a 
malignant attack of incurable swelled head. I rather fancy he is now 
back in the shoe store. I hope you will forgive me, but honest, it had to 
come out. At any rate, I was on a periodical trip to Rome for the men's 
checks, I had my periodical fight with this bird who just simply hated to 
part with money on general i)rinciples, and following that I had my 
I>eriodical relaxation. When in Rome one does as the Romans do. The 
first thing then to find out was — what do the Romans do? The answer 
was, to say the least, intriguing to one's fancy. But it is the same as 
is done in Paris — in Venice, or Budapest, in Film City — Hollywood or 
Greenwich Village. So I went to see the Pope. 

This was not so difficult to arrange as one would imagine. In those 
iays the Pope was receivng quite a bit. 

Seeing the Pope is expensive. Those doggone Swiss guards have 
the itchingest palms in the world. They itch harder and longer than 
any other type of leech in all of Italy or France. 

The party I went with consisted of Naval officers, men on leave from 
France, a Y. M. C. A. bravo or two, and some Red Cross women. He 
saw us in gangs as it were. They tell me Samuel Gompers saw his Holi- 
ness while he was in Italy. I don't know what they talked about but 
look what Sam up and did recently ! 

What I am about to tell you is an example of that happy-go-lucky 
dare-devil spirit which raised the Doughboy head and shoulders above 
all the other troops in the world. 

The Pope saw us and spoke the usual platitudes. He was very kind. 
It is the custom when in audience with the Pope for any person of the 
Catholic faith to bring rosaries with them; these the Pope himself will 
bless. So, according to the ancient custom all Catholics in the party 
possessing rosaries kneeled on the little red cushions with hands out- 
stretched clasping the beads. 

It was very still and very solemn. His Holiness murmured in Latin 
and made the sign of the Cross over the bowed heads. We filed out in 
silence feeling very subdued and well — as though we knew entirely too 
much of the evil in the world. 

But once outside in the Courtyard that leads from the Vatican to 
St. Peter's, a young tow-headed ensign let out a most rousing whoop. 

"Man! Man!" he said, "Lookit what I got! Lookit what I got! 
Whoopee ! ' ' We stopped in astonishment and watched the excited officer. 



'^■i Ohio DoiKjliboijs in Italy 

Well sir — you'tl never imagine what he was squawking al^out, and he 
had 'em, too ! That yonngster had, while clasping his rosary, held tightly 
in his hands a pair of worn and yellow dice ! 

Now, is there anjavhere Init in America a lad wha 'd think of getting 
his "ivories" blessed by the Po])ef I doubt it ! 

Wasn't it that spirit and that ingenuity (if one may call it that) 
which l)roke the Hindenburg line! Forget the dice — forget what they 
represent and look at the cleaner side of it and you'll take your hat off 
to that kid. 

Ill 

By this time (this being the third installment) I have come 
to feel quite the seasoned author. The immediate effect of these 
accepted publications was however far different from what a "suc- 
cessful" man of "literature" would expect. Hear me: — 

Having taken unto my bosom and bank account a wife I nat- 
urally felt as though I could look for a few pattings on the back, a 
soft nuzzle or two from this fair creature who promised to honor 
and obey, with reservations, her new provider. But did I get 
them ? Hah ! After the first installment came out I confined my 
activities to merely strutting before her telling her that she cer- 
tainly hadn't made a mistake the leap year we were married ; that 
Ring Lardner has his good points as has Sinclair Lewis, but the 
present generation of young men were the comers and not to be 
snickered at. 

After the second installment came out with a portrait and 
everything, I fancy I became more vociferous, with a few additional 
trimmings to the struts in the way of preenings, gentle tweeks of 
a soft mustache, and an air of quiet dignity which old Bill Robbins, 
my ex-captain, would never believe possible. 

The Light of my Life endured this for as long as any woman 
could, before she blew up — but it is a long worm which hath no 
twining and the crash came one evening from a sky of Harding 
blue. 

We were getting ready to go to some lecture (someone had 
wished on us the tickets) and I was endeavoring to show her she 
could improve her mind much more readily by listening to a suc- 
cessful author hold forth on anything, rather than sit on a hard 
wood folding chair and listen to some ex-Chatauqua speaker earn 
his daily bread. For instance, I was more than ready to show her 
why Georges is going the limit with Jack Bergdoll when they 
meet — anyway — she stopped in the middle of yanking a hair from 
her long-suffering brows and said with a mean look in her eye, 
"Dear — I have something I clipped from the paper today, it should 
prove so interesting to you, I'll get it". 

"Aha" — thought i, "some Boston critic comments favorably". 

"Here it is," she said, and the mean look was growing meaner, 
"Mr. Edison says 'most men are boneheads' — wait a minute dar- 
ling", this in honeyed tones, as I reached for my hat, "here is the 
meat of the article". As she said this she settled deeper into her 



Ohio Doughboys in Italtj 85 

chair — the look in her eye now downright wild, " 'What', — and I'm 
sure you can answer this at once, — 'does the king of Italy season 
his tripe with ?' " 

"Easy", I said— "He doesn't eat tripe". 

"Wrong", she said, "Pepper is the answer". 

"Tell me then," and she read from the clipping, " 'What new 
great star has just been measured by the scientists?' " 

"Cinch", I answered quickly, "Doggointis". 

"Wrong again, my dear husband, Fatty Arbuckle is correct". 

As she read on and on, down a staggering list of simple (I use 
the word in all its meanings) questions, she interjected certain 
pithy remarks to the point of Mr. Edison's observations. Adding 
a few of her own such as "you're not so smart after all, honey", or 
"funny you can't answer that — just the other day you told me" — 
and such like. 

Well sir, at the end she scored a clean fall, both shoulders on 
the mat and I crying for mercy. She didn't say much — but she had 
me licked to a fare - ye - well ; if there had been ten more quizzes 
on that list she'd be wearing a new hat. 

She summed up the little meeting by saying triumphantly 
though gently, "You see if we had to depend on your writing for 
our living, I'd have to take in washing". 

Speaking of being married, — when I was in Italy with the 
332nd I was very much single, consequently the war was not the 
vacation for me that it was for a great many (especially for those 
with large families). Having no desire to spill any beans, (in fact 
I doubt if I could, for I am sure all dutiful husbands tell their wives 
everything) I shall not touch, in these meanderings, even the edge 
of the bean-bag. 

I mentioned awhile back Bill Robbins. Bill Bobbins was my 
old captain — that is rather ambiguous, for he's not so old — not too 
old anyhow. He was an officer and a gentleman. The former was 
proven by his bars and clinched by Act of Congress, the latter 
showed in his voice. He had what men call a commanding voice, 
I'll say it was. When Cap'n Robbins got through giving a com- 
mand what few leaves were left on the trees could have withstood 
a bigger wind than Ireland ever knew. There was no doubt as to 
which way the Company was to turn, or the squads swing when 
Willy sounded off. It is a fact, that in the old days in training 
camp when two companies used the same drill grounds the lucky 
captain whose company shared the ground with Cap'n W. Robbins' 
command, didn't have to work at all. He could seek a shady nook 
under the lee of a lumber pile, and rest assured every command 
that Robbins gave would be carried out bv his own troops. It was 
a voice built to shout "Ready— Aim— FIRE", or "CHARGE", and 
its too bad it was only used to swing Goewey and other back-slid 
looeys into line. 

Let me take you with me now, to Venice — you men who have 
been there — do vou remember the dark silent streets? the walled 



8G Ohio Doughhoy.s in Italy 

up Cathedral and the sand-bagged Doge palace? And do you re- 
member how in your school days you were told of the Venetian 
gondoliers? The singing gondoliers? Did you, then, remark the 
woeful lack of levity in that beautiful silent city ? Remember how, 
as the shadow^s fell over the "Campanile" you sat in the "Little 
Square" and ate Lemone Giacci? and then, you recall, as you sat 
there a great solemn hush fell upon that already too silent town as 
of a breathless waiting, always waiting?, and as night fell darker 
and darker, one spoke in whispers at the tiny tables, the only clear 
sound audible being the clink of silver on glass, and the feeling of 
expectancy increased with the passing of the minutes. About the 
square, you will recall, silent dark shapes passed to and fro in the 
utter darkness of w-ar-time Venice, and the vast, tense silence was 
broken only by the stir of an uneasy pigeon under some age-old 
eave. Finally the harvest moon arose in all its white magnificence 
and changed that dirty, unpainted city into your dream Venice, 
and with the shedding of its dead white light a sigh arose from 
the Venetians who refused to flee their homes — for the harvest 
moon spelled death. Only on moonlit nights would the Austrian 
bring his low-flying bombers to wreck and ruin this jewel of the 
Adriatic. 

It was on such a night I sat with Davidson and St. Bottegeli 
of the Italian Army in the Little Square of St. Mark's. The moon 
had been up an hour and it was beginning to look as if the Hun 
woukl not appear, when suddenly the siren sounded, followed by 
the crack-crack of the anti-aircraft, and this in turn was followed 
by wave upon wave of furious machine gun fire. The archies bark- 
ed and barked, the siren moaned and the machine guns reminded 
me of a vicious little terrier snapping and snarling at an annoying 
person with a stick. Clearly above this came the drone of the 
motors of the night-flyer from Austria. Thrice she circled Venice 
trying to penetrate the ring of steel thrown up by the defense — 
But it is not my intention to describe anything so prosaic as are 
air raids — I merely mentioned all this to say that since I deliber- 
ately walked over the Lion of St. Mark's and sat at its base during 
the whole performance just to be able to say at some time that I 
sat there while Venice was being raided — I am not going to miss 
this opportunity to do that very thing. 

While in Venice I discovered many interesting things. One 
was how easy it is to get pinched in Italy. I carried a pass from 
the army to take pictures. So, of course, I took my camera to 
Venice — and landed in the Dago Hoosgow. Venice, it seems, was 
under the Navy — an Army pass was as good as a Russian ruble. 
It took some mighty tall talk on the part of my Italian friend to 
keep me from being hekl for investigation by the Navy, and then 
when that was finally straightened out (which was only after 
Betocchi had sworn on the Italian I. D. R., the bible, his grand- 
father's memory, and in the name of his patron sain^) we had to 
go all through the same motions to save my camera from confisca- 
tion. 



Ohio Doughboys in Italy 87 

That night I stayed in the city. I had a room on the third 
floor facing the Canale Marsetti. I do not know what Marsetti 
means, but if someone said "Oh — Marsetti is Itahan for 'stink' I'd 
say, yes, yes, of course, how dense of me", and at low tide it should 
be "stinkissimo". Well — this is the true story of why the gondo- 
liers sing in Venice. 

Upon arising the next morning I took the usual hop, skip and 
a jump across the stone floor to my wash bowl and pitcher, and 
stood on the little two by four rug while I dressed and shaved. 
During this operation the Italian femme de chambre entered. I 
had always given her credit for knocking though I didn't hear it; 
I fancy she felt perfectly safe, being the proud possessor of quite 
a mustache. After one glance at her hirsute adornment on lip and 
chin I went on shaving. She made a few passes at the bed — took 
out the pitcher and filled it, returned with it, and some fresh soap 
in a scaly hand, which she handed me with a grimace I took for a 
smile. Her next move was to take the waste-water jar and, hav- 
ing first thrown back the shutters, she heaved the entire contents 
into the canal. She missed a Venetian "taxi" by two feet. There 
followed a line of conversation from the taxi-rower, the gist of 
which was she should have been born a duck. She had a duck's 
brains, a duck's face and a duck's feet — Ecco ! How come she 
wasn't a duck? The Italian language is beautifully suited for 
such delightful repartee. Her reply was in kind, of course. It 
seems, according to her, he was not a man nor even an animal, he 
was only a running sore on the face of the good mother earth. A 
pollution to be spat upon, something to be shunned by mankind. 
Besides what in the name of the devil did he have a voice for? 
Was he so far in his second childhood he could not fill his puny 
lungs with the Good Lord's sweet clean air, and raise a note on 
high? After consigning his carcass to eternal torment she slam- 
med the shutter with a satisfied smile. She was content. For all 
he could find to answer, as his impatient fare demanded he hurry, 
was to shake a mean fist, the elbow supported in the palm of his 
other hand. 

I returned to Italian Hdqrs. that day, but I felt that another 
illusion had been dispelled, for I, like all the rest of America, 
thought the Italian gondoliers sang for the love of singing alone. 
Well — he does love to sing, but I can well imagine it gets monoto- 
nous when you have to keep it up or get soaked on the head with 
the contents of various jars and pitchers — what? 

A whole regiment on a bat ! Ever hear of it ? The other day 
a perfect stranger came up to me and said, "Pardon me, but were 
you ever in Genoa?" 

"I certainly was", I answered in surprise. 

"I thought so," said he, "I never forget a face, and I'll never 
forget you". 

"No?" 

"Nossir! Remember the Olympia?" 

Did I remember the Olympia! Did I know my own name! 



SS Ohio Doiiiihboys in Italy 

"Well sir, I saw you in the Olympia trying to shoot billiards 
with some other looeys trying the same thing." 

"I admit," I said a bit stiffly, "I cannot shoot a perfect game 
of billiards, but ". 

'There, there," he broke in, "there was a good reason for your 
failure this time. I was a gob on shore leave and enjoyed the 
game more than you did." 

From this on we drifted into the usual talk and parted after 
an hour. But he reminded me of that day and vivid night in 
Genoa. That never to be forgotten day and night when the cab 
drivers of Genoa felt the weight of hilarious American fists — when 
the red, red wine flowed and gurgled and the fire of pent-up deviltry 
blazed from the eyes of a thousand men. 

It was all because of disappointment and homesickness, the 
breaking of a tension known only to the man who loves his home 
and country and is unable to return when he wills. 

We had been away from home for years, so it seemed, and here 
we were at last in Genoa, the jumping off" place for home — the place 
where the final adieus would be said to the land to which the for 
tunes of war had brought us. We went to Genoa in high spirits 
and with light hearts. But as day after day passed in monotonous 
drill and anxious waiting for the final word to GO, the old morale 
went lower and lower until we were the home-sickest aggregation 
of mis-fits known to man. 

One day orders were sent out to pack up and take all baggage 
to a certain ship and await sailing orders. One can imagine the 
activity that followed, gone was that gloomy air that hung over 
Genoa like a thick fog — gone the lagging gait of homesick bucks. 
In their stead one saw springy-footed young soldiers, square shoul- 
dered and browned by the sun of Italy, hustling hither and yon on 
various duties. Coronas clacked away on passenger lists — order- 
lies scampered, and captains looked important, looeys once more 
acquired that worried look as they thought of the trip home and 
the duty below decks. Also there was much speculation as to 
which bunch would be unlucky enough to sail on the same ship with 
the Lieutenant-Colonel. The same being a parson in the days he 
wore long pants, before the war. Not that the parson wasn't prop- 
er company, but he had certain rigid ideas as to what should go 
into the decanters. 

All was finally in readiness and the men were once more gath- 
ered in little groups singing and joking and — praising their officers. 
At any rate a second looey passed them the laugh, so that's what 
they must have been doing. Then — out of a clear sky as it were — 
came three perfectly superfluous generals. They spent good time 
and money to come all the way down from Paris to tell us that 
somebody's foot slipped somewhere ; that we were not due to go 
home ; that that ship was needed elsewhere ! How did we get that 
way, packing up and changing money back to dollars, and every- 
thing? Now go back to quarters and stay put until fiirther orders, 
and lot more nobody heard. 

That night in Genoa merry hell broke loose. And the later it 



Ohio Doughboys in Italy 89 

got the looser it got. Until by morning there was so much slack 
to take up it looked as though the Old Man had better take back 
his prize outfit in a row-boat. 

I remember one thing that happened that night. There was 
a civilian in Olympia at the time the dining room was most crowded 
with the A. E. F. He was an American and some sort of relative 
of one of our Sergeants. He was well heeled with lire and carry- 
ing a heavy cargo of Spumanti. He reminded one of a tramp 
steamer stopping at various ports o' call. He would be seen first 
at one table and then one would discover him steering a tortuous 
course through the reefs of legs and chairs to another table where 
he would stop long enough to take on some more freight, only to 
leave shortly for another. And so on until the hold was full and 
the gunwales awash. It was this lad who emerged into the night 
with some army men shouting the Battle Cry of Freedom. The 
cabbies suffered even more than the chinaware that night — but it 
was found that this sea-going civilian had had his nose chewed off 
by some unthinking night-hawk who had lived on macaroni and 
octopus for so long he evidently welcomed the chance to get a bit 
of fresh meat. 

It was not that we had anything against the cabbies, who were 
merely petty thieves, it was, I really believe, that every man jack 
who swung a fist that night saw before him, not a fat-faced be- 
whiskered, patent-leathered-hatted goo-goo, but a lean faced, 
square-jawed man with a star on his shoulder. 

The whole thing was healthy and normal and quite natural, 
and was healthily and naturally regarded by the old man. 

I never knew how the old man's assistant took it, but presume 
that was why he clamped an awful lid on the ship he commanded 
going home. But say, — doesn't it beat the deuce how a man will 
act? My own ship, the one on which the Colonel sailed, was not 
dry, and one would have thought they were in the Sahara from the 
amount of stuff that flowed. But — when we met the ship com- 
manded by the Lieutenant-Colonel in Gibralter, and went over to 
advance they gave — Oh Boy ! We were met on all sides by invi- 
tations to "Slip down to my cabin — just have two left," or "walk 
nonchalantly past that window where the Colonel sits, then run 
like hell for room 28." One lad on this dry ship was reciting over 
and over a little poem. It began and ended thus, "The Mutt stood 
on the Burning Deck — Hot Dog." 

It was up by the pilot house where the Enghsh captain pa'^ed 
the bridge and smoked a wicked pipe. His patience was finally 
exhausted for he took the pipe from his mouth and bawled, "I say, 
matey, won't you give that animal about face, or burn the bloody 
blight up?". 

And so we left Italy, the land of the flea and home of the 
knave — "knaves" insofar as the prices they charged a yankee ; and 
although every man swore he was through with Europe, today if 
he is subject to the normal reactions, would whoop at the chance 
to return and go over the old ground inch by inch, stepping the 
weary miles with a smile. 



90 Oliio DoiKjhhoijs in Italy 



One Meaning of America 




HIS miracle we call America is still in the making and 
before our very eyes. A new nation, more — a new race — 
is in evidence, compounded from the ambitious, the adven- 
turesome and the courageous of all peoples. If that new 
race is to play its worthy part in history we, in the mak- 
ing, must preserve and develop in its new generations, the better 
characteristics of its forbears. We must preserve in modern forms, 
and against modern conditions, the dauntless courage of the Norse- 
men, the steady self-reliance of our American pioneers, the steady 
persistence of the Pilgrims, the chivalry and idealism of the Cru- 
saders, the rugged sense of justice and fair play of the Saxon. 

Ours is a land blessed by nature in natural wealth of field and 
mine. Ours is an ideal democratic government, of fair play, hold- 
mg open the door of equality, of opportunity for individual industry 
and abihty to lay its rightful tribute on the resources they develope 
for human service. Ours is a social structure that holds no man 
in the deadening tyranny of a rigid class system and recognizes 
only an aristocracy of character and knowledge. Ours is a political 
system that rests on a supreme trust in the motives and impulses 
of the average man and woman ; a submission without violence, to 
authority established in the majority will, honestly recorded. 

I believe it is typically American also, that with these larger 
opportunities should come also an increasing sense of equality of 
trust vested in the more fortunate, and also typically American 
that among men of all stages of personal fortune there should be 
a clear evidence of a desire, a unity of impulse, that each, accord- 
ing to their means, more and more support the agencies of human 
service and co-operation. 

From an address by JULIUS H. BARNES. 



Ohio Doii(jhJ)oys in Italy 91 

The Log of Company "D" 
332d Infantry 

is the title of a book containing seventy-five pages of great memo- 
ries woven into narratives and illustrated with pictures. 

The Editor speaks: 
"Our Story begins on a rainy Friday Afternoon. It was 
a beginning, an ominous beginning, of a long and interesting 
chain of movements whether good or ill, of the 332nd Regiment 
of United States Infantry. We trace those movements, relat- 
ing briefly their meaning and their import, together with their 
attendant consequences, consequences which helped to bring 
ruin and disaster to a quartet of decadent and barbaric nations 
of the Twentieth Century." 

The volume deals with Company D more particularly, but is 
equally interesting to any former member of the 332nd Regiment. 

Only about a half-hundred copies left but these are ready for 
immediate delivery. First come first served. Mail this coupon 
to-day : 



u 



To WALTER C. HART, 
3035 Euclid Hghts. Blvd., 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Enclosed is $3.00 for which send immediately by insured parcel 
post, one copy of "The Log of Company D, 332nd Infantry", to 



(Name) 

(Street and Number) 
(City and State) 



02 



Ohio Donghhoys in Italy 



FIRE INSURANCE- LOANS 

99 YEAR LEASES 




Of F I C CR S 



L » CONELLY PntsTKIAS 

C W BROWN Vice P«t9 

W R JCAVONS Vict P»t» 

E D RAY Vici PP<C» 

G W CONELLY StCneTAXr 



COMMUNICATION FROM 
.uc.Lm ,o»T» .T. CLEVELAND. OHIO 



January 24, 19£1 



Mr. Philip S. Godfrey, 
Atlantic City. H.J 

Dear Sir: 

I ha7e read the copies &f th* 
Soldlera and Sailors Bulletin which you mailed 
to me and have found them very Interesting. 
The story of the 332na Infantry le the moat 
correct and interesting of any that I have seen. 

I was a Ist Lieut, in Company and 
therefore am thoroughly familiar with the move- 
ments of the Regiment and eepocially the 2nd 
Battalion. I have seen a mucoar of accounts 
regarding the work of our Battalion and have 
had many a laugh over some of the statements made 
by different writers. Your story, however, gives 
a very complete history of the entire regiment. 

I am enclosing a check for $2.00 to 
covar a years subscription for the Soldiers and 
Sailors Bulletin, to begin with the Bovember 1, 
1920. number. 



GWC:3 




Ohio Doughboys in Italy 



98 




THE DLfllTH HERALD 




februnry the eighth 
19 2 1 



Mr. F.S.Sore, 
Atlantic City, 
New Jersey. 



Dear Mr, Gore: 



r receiveJ your advertising circular "Times 
Are Good" and it was so g"od that I have had it printed on 
the Editorial rage of the Herald. I aa enclosing the page 
from our issue of Monday, February the 7th, and am sending 
under separate cover » full copy of our issue of that date. 

I hope everything is going well with you. 



r aa. 




c)j^ Ohio Douglihoys in Italy 



Additional copies of this book may 
be obtained separately for $2.00 or in 
combination with a year's subscrip- 
tion to The Soldiers* and Sailors' 
Bulletin for $3.00. 

Address: 

PHILIP S. GODFREY, Director, 

Guarantee Trust Building, 

P. O. Box No. 666, 

Atlantic City, New Jersey, U. S. A. 



-ii 



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